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As a beverage, water is in no demand in Dubuque. In summer it is too warm to drink, and in winter it is too cold. The regular beverage is lager beer at one end of the town, whiskey at the other end, and whiskey and beer at the center...It has been found that water is a good thing to use in extinguishing fires. Therefore, it is proposed to have a waterworks. Franc WILKIE Chicago Times, August 14, 1870
Early residents of Dubuque depended on private wells, cisterns, or the MISSISSIPPI RIVER for their water supply. The first recorded effort to supply water appeared in 1838 when city officials ordered the digging of three wells for fire protection. In January, 1855 Henry L. STOUT and sixteen others, upon petition, were granted the exclusive privilege of supplying the city with water by water works. (1)
One of the things to which we wish to call the attention of the city fathers is the fact that most of the water which is supplied by the water carriers of Dubuque to their customers is obtained along the inner levee and at other most improper places. (Express and Herald, May 31, 1856.) (2)
Prior to the CIVIL WAR, two barrels of water cost twenty cents delivered in town and thirty-five cents transported to the bluffs. A plan to pump river water into the city was stopped: its quality was unfavorably compared to the quality of local beer.
The quality of the water being delivered by private haulers was described in June 1864 when the following editorial appeared in the Dubuque Democratic Herald: (3)
Get Pure Water. The water haulers fill their cans with that nasty, dirty water in the slough behind the JULIEN HOUSE. When we want soup, we will order some. Give us pure water or none. Go to the river, not the slough.
In December 1863 readers of the Dubuque Democratic Herald found the newspaper asking land owners to encourage "water diggings." The paper reminded readers that MINING presented an opportunity for the city to have a good supply of water as well as lowering water levels enough to promote mining. (4) In 1864 State Senator Knoll of Dubuque County introduced a bill in the Iowa Legislature stating that any miner who sank a shaft, installed machinery to drain water, and subsequently drained water from neighboring mines was owed one-tenth of those mines' production. (5)
In April 1864 a stock company called the Dubuque Level and Lead Mining Company, was formed by Selah CHAMBERLAIN, Newton W. Kimball, Henry W. Clark, Randall J. Giggs, and J. W. Parker to blast a tunnel beneath a hill located as the site now known as the BUNKER HILL GOLF COURSE. The tunnel was planned to lower the water level enough to allow increased mining for LEAD. (6) A second company interested in tunneling was also established with such local backers as Peter KIENE, Julius K. GRAVES, William Boyd ALLISON, Joseph A. RHOMBERG, D. N. COOLEY, and Richard A. BABBAGE. This company, however, gave up tunneling and disbanded on October 29, 1870. See: DUBUQUE LEVEL AND LEAD MINING COMPANY et al, v SELAH CHAMBERLAIN et al
In constructing the tunnel, the Chamberlain-Kimball company tapped a source of water. It began to flow slowly, but increased in volume to an estimated daily rate of 400,000 gallons. (7) In 1966 a survey crew mapped the 1,000-foot long tunnel which averaged 4 feet in width. The water was knee to waist deep. The tunnel ended at a cement dam with an iron valve that still worked. (8)
Since the tunnel was approximately eighty feet above the level of downtown Dubuque, Chamberlain decided upon operating a water company. Without sharing his plans with others, Chamberlain began buying up the shares of other investors. Two years passed before the idea of opening a water works was announced. (9) At this time, a lawsuit was filed alleging that Chamberlain, as an officer of the original company, acted in his own interest and not that of the other investors. This case, Stanley, the Level Co., et al., vs Selah Chamberlain and the Water Company was not settled until 1881. The judgement found in favor of the plaintiffs in the sum of $60,000 plus interest at 6% from June 1871 for a total of $96,000. (10)
On September 22, 1864 the following editorial appeared in the Dubuque Democratic Herald:
To the City Fathers---The lack of water in the city has become a nuisance, and we respectfully represent to your honorable body that it would be a public benefit to establish, in suitable places, public wells. The whole city was out yesterday looking for water, and it is certainly rather extravagant to be obliged to pay from five to ten cents per bucket for this necessity of life (11)
On December 6, 1870 the city council gave the Chamberlain-Kimball company the franchise to operate under the name of the Dubuque Water Company. The council retained the right to purchase the water company in twenty years at the expiration of the franchise. (12) The company was required to provide water by gravity pressure until increased consumption required pumping equipment. (13)
On July 31, 1871, the first water pipe in Iowa was laid between Main and Iowa on Seventh. (14) The same year, cast-iron mains were laid in the north-south alleys. A party was held on August 22, 1871, at which many of Dubuque's prominent businessmen journeyed through the tunnel inspecting the water supply. (15) The tunnel ran at a depth of one hundred eighty feet.
The new waterworks were fully completed in October, 1871 and tested. Since the capacity of the reservoir was 250,000 gallons, it was obvious that a new reservoir would be necessary; one holding 2,000,000 gallons was planned. The new water reservoir, completed in the spring of 1873, was 230 feet x 56-feet and had a capacity of 2,000,000 gallons. The cost of construction was $22,000. (16)
Regulations about the use of water were something new for Dubuque residents. In June 1873 residents were reminded that if they wanted to use a hose for watering their lawns or washing their sidewalks, a permit was needed. Using a hose to sprinkle the streets was not allowed at any time. If these rules were violated, water was turned off to that house. (17) On July 30, 1873, efforts to improve the health conditions in Dubuque included a survey of private wells. Wells found to be close to privy vaults and showing evidence of contamination were ordered closed permanently. (18)
In 1874 the Dubuque Herald reminded manufacturers of the value of having a private hydrant. Fires at PATCH & WAITE and J. L. DICKINSON & CO. were handled by quick thinking employees who attached a hose to a hydrant on the premises. (19) Hydrants were also the subject of interest to residents of homes in June of 1874. The water department began excavating several street corners and installing hydrants from which water could be obtained for drinking and cooking. Nearby residents were each provided with a key. (20)
Rules for the use of water appeared in the Dubuque Herald on May 31, 1874. People connected to the water works were not allowed to supply other people with water and taps were allowed to be left open only during the time of actual water use. Hoses were only permitted to be used between 6:00-7:00 a.m. and in the evening from 6:00-7:00 p.m. Hydrant keys had to be removed. Violations of these rules led to the immediate discontinuation of water supplied to the property. (21) This occurred in June of 1874 when two watering troughs on 8th Street were turned off. The Dubuque Herald suggested everyone using them should contribute a dollar or two so that service could be returned. (22) The water works received high praise from the Dubuque Herald on July 8, 1874, for turning on the hydrants on "all the principal corners" and furnishing "bright new dippers" so that everyone could get a drink on "that red-hot day." (23)
The refusal of the water company to refill the troughs on 8th street between Locust and Bluff in August 1874 caused a great deal of complaint. In a Dubuque Herald editorial, the writers commented that $300,000 had been spent by the water company in developing the city's system. The company, according to the writers, apparently had no problem with farmers and transient travelers watering their stock at the troughs. There only seemed to be a problem when citizens of Dubuque brought their horses from the stables to drink. (24) While the newspaper understood the concern of the company, the writers went further. They stated the belief that the city should do more to make water available. More "water stations" should be supplied at city expense. (25)
This was not done. In May 1878 the same issue of drinking fountains for people in the city was still a concern of the Dubuque Daily Herald. (26) This issue was resolved in October 1878 when five public drinking fountains were ordered for the city. (27) The fountains arrived in November with one scheduled for installation in each of the wards. The fountains were said to resemble a lamp post with a lamp on the top of each. (28)
Drinking fountains again were a concern of the Dubuque Daily Herald in 1890. On April 16th the paper noticed that there was a lack of cups "making it hard to get a drink." "Facilities for drinking are notably deficient in the park and on West Locust." (29) In 1901 concern was raised that residents suffering from cancer were being allowed to drink from the common cup attached to each fountain. An unnamed doctor was quoted as saying that everyone using the common cup should be sure to rinse it first. (30)
In August 1875 the water company discontinued the practice of allowing street hydrants to be available for private use. Keys were collected as soon as hydrants were placed on school premises. (31) In 1876 the committee on public grounds and buildings responded to the calls for more available water by allowing the water department $80 annually for two taps on the city market building. (32)
Dubuque water did not taste pleasant. An article in the Dubuque Herald claimed that the water tasted
musty as though all the leaves of the forest had fell (sic) into the reservoir and decayed there or that the water flowed through decayed tree stumps before it reached the consumer. (33)
The Herald, however, quickly took the side of the water department over the issue of rates. In April, 1876 the newspaper's editorial staff reported that Davenport paid its water company $19,000 annually while Dubuque paid $7,550. "When Dubuquers grumble at high rates, they should go to Davenport and consult customers in that city." (34) Installing the water pipe along Julien Avenue posed a great problem in 1876. To create a channel for the pipe, blasting had to be done within twenty feet of many homes. (35)
Interest developed in 1877 for providing water to the city's dogs. Instead of poisoning or shooting stray dogs, the Dubuque Herald suggested it would be more humane to provide drinking troughs "to promote their health and thereby render them free from all danger of hydrophobia." (36)
Concern about the supply of water arose in July of 1879. The Dubuque Herald reported that N. W. Kimball, superintendent of the water works, informed the paper that at no time during the last week did the level of water in the reservoir fall below thirteen or fourteen feet.
People need not apprehend that the water supply will give out. It is what might be termed inexhaustible. (37)
The water company was given the right in March 1887, to put in pumping works at the LORIMIER HOUSE artesian well. This furnished "the hill" with its supply of water. This well was 1,050 feet deep and flowed at 180 gallons per minute. (38)
In July 1880 the Dubuque Herald reported that drinking fountains at the street corners had been supplied with new tin cups and chains. (39)
Demand for water in the hill districts, which gravity pressure failed to reach, grew by 1880. A wooden water tank was constructed at Julien and Wilson avenues. When filled, this served the hill district and the homes below that level with adequate water. (40) Residents on Fenelon Avenue without water for cooking or drinking suggested in 1886 the digging of an artesian well and raising water with a wind mill. (41) In 1888 a new pumping station was constructed and an artesian well was drilled at the bottom of 8th Street. A 400,000 gallon standpipe was built on Delhi in 1889 to provide water to residents at a higher elevation in the city. The water supply for the standpipe came from the artesian well drilled at the site of the pumping station. (42)
In 1891 city officials insisted on direct water pressure and better service from the water company. (43) The primary reason given was that the extension of sanitary sewers throughout much of the main part of the city had increased the demand for water. (44)
In July 1892 an offer to purchase the water system was received from the American Water Works and Guarantee Company of Philadelphia. The company already owned the water systems of Clinton and Keokuk and had plans for further expansion. The company asked the city to waive its right to purchase the system at an appraised value. The Dubuque Daily Herald reported that the council was favorable to the purchase if the rates could be reduced one-third. (45)
At the time, it was assumed that the following requirements would have to be met: (46)
1. All new pipes should be laid in the alleys,
2. Should the water from the river become "riley" (sp) and a chemical expert pronounced it deleterious to health, the city may require the company to filter it,
3. The pipes for all extensions ordered by the council must be laid within sixty days of notice being given,
4. The charges to the city and to the private consumers for which the charter at present provides, shall be lessened one-third,
5. The charge for supplying flush tanks shall not exceed $20 per year,
6. Free water shall be provided for the public parks and fountains,
7. The council shall have power to impose proper police regulation
Mayor Charles J. W. SAUNDERS suggested at the same meeting that a local company could be responsible for the water needs. With stand pipes on the bluffs supplied with water from the river, sufficient pressure would be created so that steam fire engines could be eliminated. This would save $10,000 annually. The mayor proposed that the city guarantee a return of 4% on the company's stock and that all receipts above that would be placed in the city treasury. A fund would be created to pay the estimated $600,000 cost of the water company at the expiration of the current charter in twenty-eight years. (47)
In September a committee including Mayor Saunders and two aldermen proposed the following would need to be accepted by purchasing company: (48)
1. The price of fire hydrants be reduced to $50 each per year when 250 are in use.
2. When 350 hydrants were in use the price should be reduced to $40 each.
3. Flush tanks for sanitary sewers would cost $20 annually.
4. Sufficient water at all times would be furnished during the continuance of this charter free of charge for ten water troughs.
5. That the price to be charged for water be reduced 10% from the schedule rates as shown by the Dubuque Water Company, also that the part of section 3 which permited the said company to charge 25% in addition to such schedule rates should be stricken out which would make a reduction of 35% as shown in the charter of the Dubuque Water Company of 1870.
6. A section would be added making the water company subject to all ordinances relating to excavating of streets.
7. Whenever the number of fire hydrants was increased to 250 and it was found to be necessary to have additional fountains and water troughs, then the city council might order and have such fountains and troughs put up and the company would furnish water free of charge but not to exceed one of each for every 25 hydrants.
8. Whenever the city council deemed it advisable to have or to provide by contract for the sprinkling of any or all of the streets of the city, then the employees of the city or the contractor could use sufficient water from the fire hydrants and the price of the water for each block or square may be such as may be agreed upon, but not to exceed $6 per year for each block or square. 9. Whenever the city council adopted a resolution to have any of the water mains or laterals extended in any of the streets of alleys, the company must extend the same and supply water as soon as may be required within sixty days after such resolution has been adopted and in case the company refused to supply water as required, the city council would have the power to revoke it charter by resolution.
10. For and in consideration of supplying the city with an improved and modern system of water works, and complying with all foregoing sections, your committee recommended that Section 7 be repealed and the charter of the present company so amended as to comply with the foregoing sections.
11. The assessment of the water company for the for the term of its franchise would be $250,000.
Reaction to the proposed sale were cautious. Judge Benjamin William LACY believed that the eleven stipulations of the council were minor compared to the value of the works. Alderman Crawford doubted that the city could purchase the water system.
A committee of fifty citizens was announced with William J. KNIGHT as chairperson. This committee would meet with the council to decide whether the city should purchase the water system and improve it or waive its right to purchase it and let it pass into the hands of the Pittsburgh company. (49) As reported in the Dubuque Daily Herald on September 23, 1892 the unanimous view of the committee after its first meeting was that the city should retain its control of the water supply.
On October 3, 1892, the water company sent notice to the city council that it had received an offer of purchase from Julius K. GRAVES, C. J. Brayton and their associates. The price offered was $319,675 with an agreement to assume its indebtedness of $40,759.83. Reaction was swift. Mayor Saunders and several council members called the information "a bluff." (50)
In November, Mayor Saunders proposed that the city give the owners six months notice of its intention to purchase the business. The council would then petition the Iowa Legislature for the power to establish a water corporation to purchase the water company, issue bonds, and pledge the revenue of the plant to payment on the bonds. Estimating the value of the water company at $250,000, the mayor proposed the amount the city now paid to the water company be devoted to expenses, interest to a fund which at the end of twenty-five years would result in the city owning the business. (51)
In July 1894 the water supplied to the citizens was found to be unhealthy despite promises made by the water company two years previously to improve it. Samples sent to the state health authorities for testing indicated a variety of contaminants. Remedies suggested were to install filters and dig wells. It was also believed that the present equipment was not of sufficient capacity to handle the demand. (52) Within a day of the city council announcing that it was considering canceling the charter within thirty days, the company responded that it could make improvements if some cuts in demand were made.
The issue of sufficient water, however, remained important--especially to people of the hill district. The destruction of a barn by fire was blamed on insufficient water as well as lack of water pressure--actually half of what was needed to shoot water onto the fire. (53)
The water company responded that it had never been obligated to furnish water pressure or power sufficient to fight a fire. It had been providing Dubuque, a city of approximately 40,000, with 5 million gallons daily or roughly 150 gallons per person. The pumping capacity of the company was sufficient to provide a city of 100,000 people with 70 gallons daily. All the citizens of the city, however, were not connected to the system and the company claimed there was great waste by those using lawn sprinklers which operated at all hours. Notices from the company to many consumers had been ignored. (54) On August 5, 1894, the company announced that lawn watering in the hill area had to end until a pump was fixed. When the work was completed, watering had to follow company rules of one hour in the morning and evening.
Angered by the attitude of the company, members of the city council in August 1894 suggested the city immediately force the company to provide healthy water in sufficient amounts or forfeit its charter. Responding to the issue, the city attorney felt that the company had already forfeited its charter. He recommended that the city refuse to pay for water service. If the forfeiture of the charter was proven in court, the city faced a worse situation. He believed the company would probably refuse to provide more water while a new plant was being constructed.
The city could not grant a new franchise without having an assessment made of the value of the old plant and payment of that amount to the previous company. The city attorney felt the city would gain nothing by legal action. Since the plant would have to be purchased anyway, he encouraged local businessmen to purchase it as had been rumored. (55) Undeterred by their problems with the water company, the fire committee of the council authorized an increase in the number of hydrants from 286 to 300. According the the charter, when 300 hydrants were placed in operation, the cost for each dropped from $60.00 to $50.00. (56)
In 1894 the Citizens' Reform Club appointed a committee to research and report on the manner in which water plants were owned and operated, amount invested, and rates charged in ten cities similar to Dubuque. The report indicated that: (57)
Aurora, IL (population 25,000--operating expenses $7,800--consumers paid $7 per family
Winona, WI (population 25,000)--operating expenses $15,000--consumers paid $3.00
Sioux City, IA (population 40,000)--operating expenses $25,000--consumers paid $6.00
La Crosse, WI (population 32,000)--operating expenses $17,000--consumers paid $5.00
Moline, IL (population 15,000)--operating expenses $8,000--consumers paid $4,00
Rock Island, IL (population 20,000)--operating expenses $12,000--consumers paid $4.00
Clinton (plant controlled by private company)--cost $9,000--consumers paid $8.00
Dubuque (plant controlled by private company)--$19,326 for 30 hydrants--consumers paid $8.00
The Water Company responded the following day with a letter in the Daily Herald stating that new wells near EAGLE POINT would increase the supply of water. The letter went on to state that quality of water had always taken preference over cost and that sometimes the owners had to contribute more of their own funds to provide the service desired.
The Citizens' Reform Club announced its plan for the purchase of the water company on October 14, 1894. This called for an appraisal of the company and then the issuance of "water bonds" to the company paid for out of the revenue obtained from the water. This would create no new debt. (58) Mayor Olinger responded with much the same plan with the exception of creating a high pressure system that would eliminate the need for fire engines saving an estimated $10,000 annually. (59)
In 1898 the company sold the water works to another group of investors. (60) Improvements were made throughout the system, but editorials in the newspaper called for municipal ownership. Since the city was already in debt over one million dollars, both men and women in the city were asked to vote whether this additional debt was acceptable. (61) Women voted 275-33 for the purchase while the men voted 3,133 to 459 in favor. This was the first election in Dubuque in which women were allowed to vote. (62)
The council originally proposed buying the water company for $150,000. This bid was less than the city engineer's estimate in March 1898 when placed the probable replacement value of the waterworks at $260,000. (63) The $150,000 bid was rejected by the water company which placed the value of their property at $815,000 (64) Believing its offer was justified, the council threatened to enforce the transfer and called in experts to make estimates of the plant. One expert quoted a value of $664,076 while another estimated the value at $799,767.75. (65) The final price was fixed at $545,000. (66) The purchase was announced to the public on February 13, 1900. (67) As a result of the buyout, the plant's name was changed from the Dubuque Water Company to the Dubuque City Water Works. (68)
The question of the legality of the bond issue resulted in no bids. Ultimately local banks and individuals purchased the bonds, but were allowed a mortgage on the plant, a definite funding tax, and payment of 4.5 percent. (69) In 1901 the finance committee of the city council attempted to have bond holders surrender their bonds to the city. It was suggested that bonds could be sold to eastern investors at a greatly reduced rate of interest resulting in a savings to the city of $5,450 annually. The GERMAN TRUST AND SAVINGS BANK agreed to surrender their bonds if others followed their example. Most said they had resold the bonds and no longer had control of them. The plan of the finance committee failed. (70)
The health consequences of drinking impure water were clearly pointed out in the report of the public health officer in 1903. In the year ending February 28, 1903, there were 36 reported cases of TYPHOID. There were 14 deaths (38.88% of those reported with the disease) when a figure closer to 5-10% should be expected. The health officer found a clue to this was physicians believing only premises needing to be quarantined had to be reported. Mathematically, using the number of deaths as a beginning, the health officer calculated nearer 140 cases should have been reported. The cases involved people who used cistern or well water. Believing that many cisterns were not properly maintained, he urged the city council to condemn all wells and cisterns in the city. The quality of the water provided by the City Water Works had been absolutely proven. (71)
In 1905 an investigation of the water works management revealed that the financial records were in poor condition. (72) There was also a large debt approaching $49,000 for the purchase of all types of supplies. Charges were made against the trustees who resigned; the deficit was added to the city's regular bonded debt. This incident has been considered one of Dubuque's worst incidents of official misconduct. (73)
Starting in 1905, Dubuque began depending less on the springs located above LANGWORTHY HOLLOW. Wells were dug, new equipment was installed, and users were forced to pay according to metered rates. (74) Previously, flat rates had been charged leading some people and businesses to be wasteful in their use of water. (75) The EAGLE POINT water station became the focus of the water delivery system. There were two wells--1,308 feet and 1,310 feet deep. (76)
In 1907 Arthur McArthur, the superintendent of the water work, confessed to embezzling water works funds. He was sentenced to four years in the penitentiary. (77)
In 1910 health concerns and the desire to increase revenues for the water plant merged. In February 1910 the Telegraph Herald reported that there was not a single vacant lot between the railroad tracks and Bluff Street or between 5th Street and Lincoln Avenue. Within that area, however, were dozens of "shacks" owned by others who received rent but made no attempt to improve their properties. The paper suggested that if the owners were forced to make sewer connections the health of their tenants would improve. The paper suggested that if the City wanted to increase the revenue of the water plant without the construction of extensive mains, it would compel the property owners to connect with sanitary sewers where water was available. (78)
As early as 1907 a concern arose over the potential of a water shortage. Before the end of the year, twelve new "driving wells" were created. Together with the sixteen existing wells and two artesian wells, the potential problem was solved. The installation of a new engine and pump with a capacity of four million gallons of water daily and improvements to the steam plant totaled $20,000. (79)
In 1910 the water works trustees published "The Water Works Today," a pamphlet informing the public about the improvements made to the plant.
In 1914 a 7.12 million gallon water reservoir costing $83,000 was established in the Fenelon Place or Prospect Hill area. This was intended to be a major part of the city's attempt to create an effective municipal water system. The reservoir, however, failed to meet expectations. Because of algae infestations, the reservoir had to be drained bi-monthly and therefore was never completely filled. It was covered over in 1922. (80)
New residents along West Locust Street in 1915 were clamoring for water. Since the street car had been extended there two years ago, many new homes had been constructed. The owners were not able to modernize them, however, because water mains had not been extended despite the required number of patrons being reached. (81)
In 1930 Dubuque's city water supply received the approval of the state board of health. The achievement was announced with 24x24 inch signs, erected by the state highway commission, on highways leading into the city. The signs read," Public Water Supply Approved by State Board of Health," in words printed in black letters against a white background. (82)
Dubuque joined Muscatine as Iowa's only two Mississippi River cities with a populations over ten thousand to use well rather than river water. In Dubuque, water was collected from four shallow wells located between the Marina and the Mississippi. In 1939 the deepest well ever dug in Dubuque was located at Shiras and Lincoln avenues. Until this time, the city's deepest well was supplying approximately two million gallons per day. (83) The new well, at a depth over 1,500 feet, was expected to produce between 3-3.5 million gallons daily. (84)
With the beginning of the city-manager form of government, a total of $650,000 was spent to improve water service. Along with the reorganization of the FIRE DEPARTMENT, the improved water department reduced the city's insurance rates by $675,000 annually. The indebtedness of the water department was almost entirely eliminated by 1933 due to its own profits. (85)
The waterworks plant on West Third was in place by 1937. When completed, 10 and 12 inch pipes were installed along West 3rd, Burch, West 5th, and Hill streets to connect with a new water tower at College and West 3rd. Hopes were raised that guaranteed water pressure would lower resident's fire protection insurance premiums by guaranteeing water pressure to all neighborhoods. (86)
The use of spring water was discontinued completely in 1950 when the purity of the water began to decline. Reservoirs off Kaufmann Avenue were maintained for emergency use only. A "high" system supplied water to the hill areas, while a "low" system served downtown. In the 1950s an "intermediate" system was built to supply water to Eagle Point and the Windsor Avenue areas. The largest reservoir in Dubuque, with a capacity of over seven million gallons of water, was located at West Third and Birch. Dubuque's wells were estimated to have the capacity of supplying water to a population of over one million people.
In January, 1950 the proposed construction of a water softening plant passed on a 3-2 vote of the city council (as it had in December, 1949), but the final decision was postponed until February. Bids for construction had ranged from $650,000 to nearly $900,000. A public hearing on the proposal resulted in no one speaking for or against the idea. In February 1950, with only Mayor Albert WHARTON voting in favor, the Dubuque City Council rejected the construction of a projected $650,000 municipal water softening plant. The council, however, did approve a $420,000 project to extend the city water system to the north end of town where low pressure was reported. (87)
In late 1951 Dubuque began fluoridation of its drinking water at a cost of about ten cents per person. This was expected to drop to around seven cents by 1953. (88) The fluoridation system was installed at a cost of about $4,000 in response to dental societies claiming tooth decay could be reduced as much as 65% in children under eight years of age. (89)
In 1954 pure water in large amounts was located from a test site on CITY ISLAND. The discovery came as good news to city officials who admitted that in July if one of the large pumps had failed, the citizens of Dubuque would have had to be asked to use less water. (90) The total cost of the water program was estimated to be about $1,200,000. (91) The new water supply was so pure that it could serve industrial purposes directly from the ground. (92) General use of the water would include being piped to the Eagle Point station, given the usual purification plus iron removal, and water softening if that process was approved. Water from the present wells was pumped 218 feet under high pressure while the new wells yielded water from 20 to 30 feet below the surface saving a great amount of energy. Some of the water in the new source was ground water--from rain or the river--but it took from six weeks to three months to filter down the thirty feet. (93)
In 1956 industry accounted for 40% of the water being used in Dubuque. Water played such an important role in business and industry that many well-known companies in Dubuque maintained their own wells in addition to being connected to city water. Among those having private wells were the HOTEL JULIEN, ADAMS COMPANY (Encyclopedia Dubuque), A.Y.MCDONALD MANUFACTURING COMPANY, FARLEY AND LOETSCHER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LORENZ LAUNDRY, DUBUQUE STAR BREWING COMPANY, CARR, ADAMS AND COLLIER COMPANY, KLAUER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, MEADOW GOLD DAIRY, and BARRETT DIVISION ALLIED CHEMICAL CORP. (94)
Construction projects in 1963 included building a 2.5 million gallon standpipe near Asbury and Carter, a 1.5 million gallon tank at Gay and Muscatine, and a booster station at the same site. The construction provided more water volume in the hill area and north of 24th St. Better fire protection was declared to be a benefit.
In 1971 the difficulties of dealing with an aged water system received public attention. Beginning in October, water department officials noticed a sudden increase of several hundred thousand gallons of daily water usage. This rose to a million gallons daily at a time when the entire city was typically using 7.2 million gallons. After questioning local industries and finding no new water usage, special phone tabs were used to listen to water mains to determine water flow.
It was soon realized that the hydrant at Dodge and Locust was the culprit. The cast iron pipe main was dated to 1899. Further investigation found that the water main was located beneath a large storm sewer which was buried beneath the old Dodge Street pavement. This had been covered to raise the street when the JULIEN DUBUQUE BRIDGE had been constructed in the 1940s. Instead of repairing the pipe, a new one was installed. (95)
Beginning in 1956 the water treatment plant used lime to soften the city's water. In 1972 the city council accepted an Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission consent order that forced the city by 1976 to stop dumping an estimated 9 tons of lime sludge daily from the plant into the Mississippi River. The estimated cost of installing new equipment to handle the problem was $800,000. (96)
Saving water and correctly determining usage were the focus of the Water Department in the early 1980s. Between 1983 and 1984 a leak detection survey saved the city an average of 500,000 gallons of water daily after some pipes were patched and others replaced. With some meters 30 years old and displaying only 83 percent accuracy, a $517,000 project was designed in 1984 to replace 15,000 meters by 1985. The long-term goal was having no meter in the city more than ten years old. Customers were not charged for the new metal or its installation and measurement accuracy was improved to better than 99%. The program of replacing meters boosted City Water Division revenues by $100,000 between the time it was started in October, 1984 and July of 1986. (97)
The highest monthly average of 10.05 million gallons and the maximum daily demand both occurred in June 1958. During fiscal year 1989 the average daily water demand in Dubuque was 7.9 million gallons or approximately 132 gallons per person per day. During the drought of July 1989, demand averaged 11.8 million gallons for a six-day period. Residential use accounted, during 1989, for 54 percent of the water pumped in Dubuque. Industrial use equaled 38 percent.
Despite a large number of older "at-risk" homes, testing of the city's water system in 1992 showed that lead levels were safe under federal guidelines. Homes constructed before 1930 were likely to have some type of lead piping, but many of these homes had had the pipe replaced. Homeowners whose water tested above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) accepted level were notified of the results. These people could explore having water lines replaced or letting their water run a few minutes before using it. (98)
Faced with state environmental fines, the Dubuque City Council in June 1993 approved the upgrading of the water pollution control plant to reduce pollution of the Mississippi River. The improvement plan would take two years and cost $6.9 million. Included in this cost was $1.5 million to upgrade the incinerator and the addition of a "heat exchanger." This captured heat escaping the plant and reduced the oil needed to heat the incinerator. (See: SANITARY SEWER (99)
Lack of adequate water pressure in 1994 led the city council in May to approve spending $1.16 million to begin building the city's fourth pressure pumping station and make hydraulic and electrical improvements to the city's water plant. Residents on the west side of town, especially those on elevated ground, had found it difficult to get enough water pressure to operate upstairs' bathrooms. (100)
The City of Dubuque in 1997 was judged to have the best tasting water in the United States in the municipal category. In the annual "Toast of the Tap: International Water Tasting and Competition" hosted by Berkley Springs, West Virginia, Dubuque ranked first of 82 entries from twenty-three states and four countries. (101) The decision to enter Dubuque's water in the competition was made the year before by Bob Green, the city's water department manager. He selected a decorative glass, filled it was tap water, and shipped it to contest officials who swirled, sipped and scanned the entries for the winner. (102)
The fourth water tower in the city was announced in 2003. Located near the intersection of Kennedy Road and the Northwest Arterial, the Fourth Zone Water Tower had a concrete base supporting a steel tower capable of holding 1.25 million gallons of water. The innovative design was new in Iowa and promised to save the city thousands of dollars in maintenance. (103)
On September 17, 2009 International Business Machines (IBM) and the City of Dubuque, Iowa announced a partnership aimed at making the city one of the first "smarter" sustainable cities in the United States. (104) The first phase of the smart city partnership included a project to increase the city's and its citizens' understanding of water management. To accomplish this, IBM developed a "Platform for Real-time Integrated Sustainability Monitoring" to provide the city with an integrated view of its energy management, including energy consumed by the electric grid, water system, and general city services.
The city in 2014 implemented a city-wide water meter replacement project using the A.Y.MCDONALD MANUFACTURING COMPANY Unmeasured Flow Reducer (UFR). This followed a test of the device in 250-1,000 homes and businesses. (105) Participants in the study were able to go online to observe their daily water usage. (106). The UFR allowed consumers to identify wasteful practices and consider corrective measures. As the city improved its water management system, IBM's technology was used to collect water consumption data and give city staff real-time information into the overall city water consumption. As part of the water meter replacement project, the City of Dubuque created a rebate program for costs associated with repairing leaks identified by the new metering system. The City budgeted $10,000 annually for matching funds to fix leaks and reduce costs for water customers. (107)
In 2015 the Eagle Point Water Plant was supplied by five shallow and four deep wells and did not use water from the Mississippi River. The plant daily produced an average of seven million gallons of treated water. The plant had a capacity of up to eighteen million gallons daily. (108) The distribution system for the water included 321 miles of water mains; 5,770 control valves; 2,876 fire hydrants and 23,500 service connections. (109)
In May, 2015 the city council approved a $9.4 million contract to extend sewer, fiber optic and water lines to the DUBUQUE REGIONAL AIRPORT. This opened up thousands of acres for development along U. S. 151/61 and U. S. 52. (110) Looking to expand its tax base and provide opportunities for future development, the Dubuque City Council chose in November 2015 to purchase Twin Ridge Water Inc. for $1.3 million. The private business supplied sewer and water services to an estimated one hundred properties in the Twin Ridge subdivision in the Key West area. The purchase did not require additional borrowing, but forced city officials to delay planned sanitary sewer improvements. (111)
Extending water service into Barrington Lakes Subdivision west of the city proved more difficult. On September 14, 2016, it was announced that a judge determined that the subdivision's agreement with the Central Iowa Water Association was valid. Since 2014 the City of Dubuque and Central Iowa had been in a legal dispute over which body provided water to the area. Barrington Lakes had sold its water system to CIWA in 2014. The City of Dubuque proposed building a new pumping station to supply water to residents living along English Mill Road. This supported development along the SOUTHWEST ARTERIAL. CIWA responded that this would infringe on its service area. City officials countered that CIWA had not announced its intent to offer service within two miles of city limits as required by law. This argument was not upheld in April when a judge ruled that the law did not apply to agreements entered into before a rule change on July 1, 2014. (112)
In November 2016 the announcement was made that the Dubuque City Council had laid the groundwork for the purchase of a neighboring water system under a potential settlement agreement. With a vote of 6-1 amendments were approved to the city's housing tax districts along North Cascade and English Mill roads to purchase an existing water system in the area of Barrington Lakes, Vernon and English Ridge subdivisions. Although not mentioned, the area aligned with the system operated by the Central Iowa Water Association. (113) On December 19, 2016 the Dubuque City Council voted 5-0 to approve the $6.1 million purchase. At the time, Central Water Association served an estimated 320 properties including Barrington Lakes, Wildwood Estates, Cedar Crest Subdivision, commercial property along Highway 20 and farmland and undeveloped property along English Mill Road. (114)
Several water main breaks in 2016 prompted the city to change its manner of dealing with future problems. The Dubuque City Council voted 7-0 in September, 2017 to adopt a uniformed policy on how to deal with the problem and communicate to people about them. Denise Ihrig, the city's water department manager, explained that the new policy asked people to sign up for their Code Red system, which alerted people through text, phone calls, email and social media. More specific door hangers were also developed that could be used to alert people in concentrated areas about emergencies. (115)
A new water tower was proposed in August 2017 to improve pressure and fire protection on the North End of Dubuque. Water pressure from 20 to 25 pounds per square inch (psi) had been recorded. This was in comparison to 60 to 80 psi needed for adequate fire protection with a minimum of 35 psi to serve current and future development. A site had been purchased for a tower in 2010 but the project proved too costly to continue. As an alternative, a booster pump station had been used to increase pressure. The engineering, construction, inspection and contingency for the new tower was estimated to cost more than $5.5 million. The work, however, would save the city $62,000 in structural repairs to the 500,000 gallon EAGLE POINT water tower which would no longer be needed. Additional savings of $10,000 in annual expense would also be realized by taking two smaller pumping stations offline. Completion of the new tower was expected by the spring or summer of 2020. (116)
Denise Ihrig, manager of the Dubuque Water Department, reported in November 2017 that two hundred tests were performed by the treatment plant operators daily to ensure quality in the drinking water. In addition, more than 120 bacteriological analyses of the drinking water were performed by the Dubuque Water and Resource Recovery Laboratory each month. (117)
City officials announced in June, 2022 that tests samples from two wells in the Dubuque drinking water supply will be used to determine if detectable amounts of perflouroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl can be found. The two chemicals categorized as PFAS, known as "forever chemicals," are resistant to degradation in water. They were originally used in such products as nonstick cookware, carpets, clothing, paper packaging for food and some firefighting foam. Long term exposure to the chemicals through drinking water could result in detrimental health effects including fetal development defects and certain types of cancers.
In previous tests done in 2013 and 2015, the samples revealed no presence of PFAS above the laboratory reporting limits, the smallest concentration of a chemical that could be reported by a laboratory. Dubuque's water met all state and federal water quality requirements and had no drinking water violations in 2021. The report issued at the time reported on the results of tests for twenty "regulated contaminants" including nitrates, coliform bacteria, LEAD, and sodium. The city water plant received is water from aquifers and produced an average of 6.5 million gallons of treated water daily. (118)
In August, 2022 city officials announced that Dubuque was applying for more than $48 million in newly available federal funds to replace LEAD pipes. Lead pipes leach into drinking water. Lead in the human body can lower intelligence, stunt development, and cause behavior problems in children.
Dubuque, the first city in Iowa to make such an application, had already applied for a low-interest loan to replace lead pipes in the city. In Iowa only a small number of cities have located their lead water lines making meeting the federal government's 2024 deadline even more difficult.
In Dubuque, mapping for the city's lead pipes began years in the past with previous officials being sure the data was updated in the belief that eventually the federal government would provide funding for pipe removal. In the meantime, an optimized corrosion control helped prevent lead from getting into the water supply keeping the health risk at a minimum.
Lead pipes constitute a national problem with many cities unaware of whether their waterlines are lead, PVC, or copper. Installed decades ago, most lead pipes are concentrated in the Midwest and Northeast with millions of miles expected. Service lines in Dubuque are owned by property owners, so if the city received the money it requested, it would be used to reduce the financial burden to residents replacing the lead pipes. The loan would be eligible for up to 49% forgiveness or an additional subsidy. Funds being requested would come from the federal Bipartisan Infrastructure Law which allocated $15 billion over five years to assist communities remove the hazardous pipes. (119)
On September 8, 2022 the Water Department issued boil water advisory for a major portion of the city with 15,600 addresses. This followed the discovery of bacteria in a water tank at 409 Gay Street. The tank was isolated and a follow-up sample was taken for more testing. The tank would remain out of service until two consecutive test samples had been taken and the contamination corrected. Boiled or bottled water could be used for making ice and brushing teeth. Nonboiled water could be used for bathing. (120) On September 10, 2022 officials said the advisory was cancelled following negative test results for the bacteria. They said it was believed the original water sample might have been contaminated in the process and there was no contamination of the water system. (121)
Detachable levels of PFAs were found in all five of Dubuque's shallow wells in December, 2022, but city officials said the water was still safe to drink. PFAs were man-made chemicals used in industry and consumer products such as packaging since the 1940s. Officials planned to maximize drawing water from the city's four deep wells to dilute the chemicals from the shallow wells. This action, however, indicated that this process might not reduce the levels to the threshold of 4 parts per trillion--the federal minimum. Research was still being done on the potential impacts of levels higher than that. At the time of the announcement, the city did not have funding budgeted for any PFAS treatment. (122)
In January, 2023 city officials announced a new industrial pretreatment coordinator position to monitor the handling by local businesses of potentially harmful substances. The pretreatment program was started in 1983 to prevent industrial businesses from discharging contaminants that could damage or interfere with the city's wastewater treatment process. The creation of the new position was one of several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations made after its audit in November, 2022.
The city had fifteen businesses or organizations identified as either significant or categorical industrial users that were required to participate in the program. These businesses or organizations included:
* Automotive and Industrial Hardware * American Protein Corp. Inc. * ADM Arto Fleeting Services * DUBUQUE STAMPING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY * Dubuque Metropolitan Solid Waste Agency * Anderson Windows and Doors * GIESE SHEET METAL COMPANY INC. * KEY CITY PLATING COMPANY * KLAUER MANUFACTURING COMPANY * PEOPLES NATURAL GAS * PRAIRIE FARMS * PROGRESSIVE PROCESSING LLC * RIE COATINGS INC. * Rousselot Inc. * SIMMONS PET FOOD
Through the program, companies are required to implement practices that reduce the concentrations of potentially harmful material in their wastewater before it is sent to the Water & Recover Recovery Center.
Other EPA recommendations were to be addressed within two years. These included conducting a survey of businesses to determine if other companies needed to be enrolled in the program. This type of survey had been done in 2015. The newly hired consultant would help the city improve its record-keeping procedures for the program and modify its annual inspection process of business operations. (123)
Officials of the city announced in late March, 2023 a plan to mitigate levels of "forever chemicals." The city would spend an estimated $4.2 million over the next three fiscal years to drill a new deep well. This would have the capacity of pumping an additional 3.5 million gallons of water daily to further dilute the levels of PFAS found in the shallower wells. The city was also exploring the implementation of a granular activated carbon filter rehabilitation treatment solution capable of reducing the levels of PFAS in the city's water. This system was estimated to cost $9.6 million. (124)
1. Oldt, Franklin T., History of Dubuque County, Iowa. Chicago: Goodspeed Historical Association, 1880. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-12-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml
2. Ibid. p. 13
3. "Get Pure Water," Dubuque Democratic Herald, June 23, 1864, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640623&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
4. "An Old Project Revived--Draining the Mines and Supplying the City With Water," Dubuque Democratic Herald, December 22, 1863. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18631222&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
5. "Important to Miners," Dubuque Democratic Herald, March 3, 1864, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640303&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
6. Rumsey, Charles. "Early Waterworks Grew from Miners' Failures," Telegraph Herald, July 31, 1955, p. 32
7. "Progress of Water Works in Dubuque Discussed at Meeting," Telegraph Herald, Dec. 6, 1925, p.1 Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=gCRFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ULsMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5368,6895609&dq=water+department+dubuque&hl=en
8. Jim Dockal, e-mail on Facebook in response to reading the entry, March 18, 2013
9. "Dubuque Plant Called One of Finest West of the Mississippi," Telegraph Herald, Dec. 6, 1925, p. 17. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=gCRFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ULsMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5368,6895609&dq=water+department+dubuque&hl=en
10. "Decree at Last," Daily Herald, September 23, 1881, p. 4
11. "Dubuque Plant Called One of the Finest..."
14. Oldt., p. 19
17. "Waterworks Notice," Dubuque Herald, June 14, 1873, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18730614&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
18. "Board of Health," Dubuque Herald, July 30, 1873, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18730730&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
19. "The Great Value of Our Waterworks," Dubuque Herald, April 24, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740424&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
20. "Little Crusaders," Dubuque Herald, June 11, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740611&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
21. "Water Works Notice," Dubuque Herald, May 31, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740531&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
22. "No More Water," Dubuque Herald, June 6, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740606&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
23. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, July 8, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740708&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
24. "A Watery Subject," Dubuque Herald, August 29, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740829&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
26. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, May 21, 1878, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18780521&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
27. 'Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, November 19, 1878, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18781119&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
28. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, October 23, 1878, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18781023&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
29. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Daily Herald, April 16, 1890, p. 4
30. "Register a Kick," Dubuque Daily Telegraph, July 16, 1901, p. 3
31. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, August 6, 1875, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18750806&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
32. "Municipal," Dubuque Herald, April 7, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760407&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
33. "Would Like to Know," Dubuque Herald, April 13, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760413&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
34. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, April 29, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760429&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
35. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, September 1, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760901&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
36. "A Plea for Dogs," Dubuque Herald, June 3, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770603&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
37. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, July 27, 1879, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18790727&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
38. "Dubuque Plant Called One of the Finest..."
39. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, July 23, 1880, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18800723&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
40. "Dubuque Plant Called..."
41. "The News in Brief," The Daily Herald, June 15, 1886, p. 4
42. Oldt. p. 21
43. "Dubuque Plant Called One of the Finest..."
45. "Wants the Water Works," Dubuque Daily Herald, July 31, 1892, p. 8. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18920731&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
46. "The Water Works," Dubuque Daily Herald, August 19, 1892, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18920819&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
48. "Names the Condition," Dubuque Daily Herald, September 9, 1892, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18920909&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
49."A Committee of Fifty," Dubuque Daily Herald, September 10, 1892, p.4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18920910&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
50. "Given a Chance to Buy," Dubuque Daily Herald, October 4, 1892, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18921004&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
51. "The Water Works," Dubuque Daily Herald, December 1, 1892, p. 4. Online https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18921201&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
52. "Sediment is Not Sand," Dubuque Daily Herald, July 19, 1894, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18940719&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
53. "Must Have More Water," Dubuque Daily Herald, July 31, 1894, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18940731&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
54. "Water Company Talks Back," Dubuque Daily Herald, August 1, 1894, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18940801&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
55. "They Have the Cinch," Dubuque Daily Herald, August 12, 1894, p. 8. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18940812&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
56. "Municipal Molecules," Dubuque Daily Herald, August 25, 1894, p. 4
57. "Compared with Others," Dubuque Daily Herald, September 25, 1894, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18940925&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
58. "Reform Club Recommendations," Dubuque Daily Herald, October 14, 1894, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18941014&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
59. "The Mayor's Plan," Dubuque Daily Herald, October, 14 1894, Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18941014&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
60. "Dubuque Plant Call One of the Finest..."
61. Oldt. p. 21
62. Oldt, p. 22
63. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, March 19, 1898, p. 5
64. "History of Dubuque and Dubuque County," Telegraph Herald, Jan. 15. 1939, p. 5. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=dtdBAAAAIBAJ&sjid=BaoMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5766,3140247&dq=dubuque+electric+company&hl=en
65. "The Water Company Has Changed Hands," Nov. 24, 1898, p. 10. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=NzlBAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0qgMAAAAIBAJ&pg=1107,5454371&dq=dubuque+water+company&hl=en
66. Oldt. p. 22
67. City of Dubuque, Dubuque Daily Herald, February 13, 1900, p. 7
68. "Now It Is Up to the People," Dubuque Daily Herald, June 30, 1900, p. 7. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=TxhBAAAAIBAJ&sjid=cKgMAAAAIBAJ&pg=3529,7930140&dq=dubuque+water+company&hl=en
69. "Dubuque Plant Called One of the Finest..."
70. "Comes to Naught," Dubuque Daily Telegraph, March 1, 1901
71. "City Council," Dubuque Telegraph Herald, June 12, 1903, p. 6
72. Oldt., p. 22
76. "History of Dubuque and Dubuque County,"
77. Oldt, p. 22
78. "Improvement Need in Heart of City," Telegraph Herald, February 6, 1910, p. 4
79. "Some Facts on the Water Works," Telegraph Herald, February 7, 1910, p. 6
80. Phase V Architectural/Historical Survey/Evaluation Final Report. Online: http://weblink.cityofdubuque.org/WebLink8/DocView.aspx?id=44950&page=1&searchid=9d0a32ca-655e-4868-b2d1-db38eb62e79b, p. 6
81. "Are Clamoring for Water," Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, August 9, 1915, p. 11
82. "Dubuque's Water Supply Approved," Telegraph-Herald and Times-Journal, March 25, 1930, p. 13
83. Phase V
84. "Water Gushes From New Well, Telegraph Herald, April 26, 1939. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=QulBAAAAIBAJ&sjid=FaoMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4562,1412648&dq=water+department+dubuque&hl=en
85. "History of Dubuque and Dubuque County," Telegraph Herald, January 15, 1939, p. 5. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=dtdBAAAAIBAJ&sjid=BaoMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5766,3140247&dq=dubuque+electric+company&hl=en
86. Phase V Architectural/Historical Survey/Evaluation Final Report. Online: http://weblink.cityofdubuque.org/WebLink8/DocView.aspx?id=44950&page=1&searchid=9d0a32ca-655e-4868-b2d1-db38eb62e79b, p. 30
87. "Mayor Casts Only Ballot for Project," Telegraph Herald, February 10, 1950, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19500210&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
88. "Dubuque Among 181 Cities with Okeyhed (sic) Water Supply," Telegraph Herald, June 13, 1938, p. 3. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Z_hBAAAAIBAJ&sjid=SqoMAAAAIBAJ&pg=2871,5128769&dq=water+department+dubuque&hl=en
89. "Dubuque Water Supply Fluoridated," Telegraph Herald, May 29, 1953, p. 11. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=TqxFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=FL0MAAAAIBAJ&pg=7249,6782806&dq=water+department+dubuque&hl=en
90. Borbeau, Bob. "Generally Taken for Granted, Water is Problem to Industry," Telegraph Herald, Mar. 11, 1956, p. 15. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=uz9RAAAAIBAJ&sjid=KNMMAAAAIBAJ&pg=6685,1211192&dq=farley+and+loetscher+manufacturing+company+dubuque&hl=en
91. "Much Water Found at New Source," Telegraph Herald, October 3, 1954, Dubuque News, p. 1
94. "Dubuque Water Supply Fluoridated..."
95. Buckley, John, "Mysterious City Water Loss Surfaces," Telegraph Herald, November 3, 1971 p. 15
96. Gwiasda, Susan B. "City Officials Tickled Over Tap-Water Title," Telegraph Herald, Feb. 25, 1997, p. 1. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ssBFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wr0MAAAAIBAJ&pg=2497,4390792&dq=water+department+dubuque&hl=en
97. Kraske, Steve. New Meters Save City $100,000," Telegraph Herald, July 7, 1986, p. 3
98. Arnold, Bill. "Dubuque's Water Meets Federal Lead Guidelines," Telegraph Herald, October 24, 1992, p. 3A
99. Eiler, Donnelle. "Water Plant Work OK'd," Telegraph Herald, June 6, 1993, p. 1A
100. "Dubuque Moves to Fix Low Water Pressure," Telegraph Herald, May 3, 1994, p. 3
101. "Dubuque Will Unveil New Water Tower," Telegraph Herald, Nov. 30, 2003, p. 7. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=RMZFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=F74MAAAAIBAJ&pg=6633,7761759&dq=water+department+dubuque&hl=en
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112. Jacobson, Ben. "Judge Rules in Favor of Barrington Lakes," Telegraph Herald, September 14, 2016, p. 3A
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117. Rezab, Matthew," No Changes to City Water," Telegraph Herald, November 27, 2017, p. 3A
118. Kruse, John, "Dubuque Wells to Get 'Forever Chemicals' Test," Telegraph Herald, June 16, 2022, p. 1A
119. Phillis, Michael and Allie Hinga, "City Seeks $48 Million to Replace Lead Pipes," Telegraph Herald, August 27, 2022, p. 1A
120. Reese, Kayli, "Bacteria Found in City Water Tank," Telegraph Herald, September 9, 2022, p. 1A
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122. Kruse, John, "City Finds More Wells Contaminated," Telegraph Herald, December 7, 2022, p. 1A
123. Kruse, John, "City to Update Waste Treatment Program," Telegraph Herald, January 25, 2023, p. 1A
124. Kruse, John, "Dubuque Pursues PFAS Solutions," Telegraph Herald, March 28, 2023, p. 1A