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Affiliated with the Local History Network of the State Historical Society of Iowa, and the Iowa Museum Association.
DUNLEITH AND DUBUQUE BRIDGE
DUNLEITH AND DUBUQUE BRIDGE. Prior to the construction of the bridge, railroad cars, wagons, and travelers of the 1860s had to be carried across the Mississippi on FERRYBOATS. (1) In the winter, brave men and women walked across the ice from Illinois to Iowa.
Hopes for a bridge across the Mississippi River began in 1857 when the Illinois legislature granted a charter to the Dunleith and Dubuque Bridge Company for the project. (2) Due to the CIVIL WAR, no action was taken on this project.
It was not until April 8, 1867 that the Dunleith and Dubuque Bridge Company was reorganized. The first board of directors included William Boyd ALLISON, president; Henry L. STOUT, vice-president and treasurer; and Platt SMITH as the directors. The capital stock authorized was "Twelve Hundred Thousand Dollars in Shares of One Hundred Dollars each." (3) All stock in the company was purchased in Dubuque, Boston, and New York.
The idea of the railroad bridge and the railroad bridge were met with stiff opposition in Dubuque. With fear that the work would result in citizens being deprived of access to the riverfront, alternative suggestions were made. Popular was the idea of constructing the tunnel under the MISSISSIPPI RIVER near the old Lorimier LEAD furnace or at Tete des Morts. This idea, however, had to be forgotten. By act of Congress, the railway had already been located and could not be moved. (4)
When the company made application to the City of Dubuque to locate the western end of the bridge and gain right-of-way into the city, many citizens argued that the bridge should also offer a wagon-way or a walk-way. (5) It was even suggested that the bridge company could be given remission of taxes for taking on the additional work. (6) Company officials stated that the matter was out of their hands since their charter had stated that only a railroad bridge would be constructed. (7)
Andrew CARNEGIE of the Union Iron Mills and the Keystone Bridge Company eventually won the contract. (8) While not the lowest bidder for the work, Carnegie agreed to meet the lowest bid which had been made for the work to be done with cast iron. (9) Carnegie had argued that such a structure would be weaker than wrought iron. He was supported in his argument by Platt SMITH who reported that one of his wagon wheels had been able to break a cast iron street lamp post. (10) Years later in his autobiography Carnegie commented," If you want a contract be on the spot when it is let, a chance remark may give you the prize." (11)
Announcement of bids was met with joy in Dubuque. The Keystone Bridge Company won the contract with a bid of $275,000. Other bids had been that high and went up to $350,000. The stone work for piers and abutments was let to Reynolds, Saulpaugh & Co. for $242,000. The approach to the west end of the bridge and was let to the same companies for $52,000. (12) Work began on a bridge 1,760 feet long with seven spans and a 359-foot span, a movable portion that allowed river traffic to pass. (13)
Two of four spans that are known to be in existence from the 1872 Dubuque Bridge approach remain in Dubuque County. One is located along the HERITAGE TRAIL. It one was sold to Dubuque County in 1890, and may have been the last one built. This bridge was relocated in 1992 to serve as a rest stop for the Heritage Trail which was opened in 1981 on a former Chicago Great Western Railway grade. The bridge was in poor condition. Holes from cutting torches were made in some of the historic elements of the bridge. Fortunately, the bridge is not carrying a load.
The other was moved to Bergfeld Pond after restoration in 2007. These spans were all built by Keystone Bridge Company with Phoenix Columns, an early truss bridge engineering marvel. The pin connected bridge along Heritage Trail is highly decorative. One of the portals was removed, but is tucked under the bridge for safe keeping. Two spans are together in Vicksburg, Mississippi as well. This span is on the National Register of Historic Places. It is a well known point on the Heritage Trail. (14)
The tunnel, blasted through the East Dubuque cliffs, provided an approach to the bridge, and rock from the tunnel was used for bridge supports. Pilings for the bridge were driven through the ice and into the stream bed. The work on the bridge was completed and the first train operated by the DUBUQUE AND SIOUX CITY RAILROAD passed over it on December 1, 1868.
The bridge was officially opened on New Year's Day, 1869 with the first arrival of a train from Chicago. (15) The completed bridge is about one-fourth the length of the Golden Gate Bridge near San Francisco. (16) The 146-foot span that rotates, moves on forty cast iron rollers each weighing five hundred pounds. (17) Originally it took six strong men to push a turn-buckle to rotate the 600-ton span each time a boat needed passage. The many steamboats using the river led to the bridge span being left open. Frances E. COUCH remembered the story of a freight train coming through the tunnel without stopping and running out onto the bridge before it could be closed. The locomotive and three cars plunged into the river, but the crew escaped. As trains became more common, the span was left closed and boats had to use their whistles to be allowed through. (18)
In 1877 the bridge was threatened with the engine house and the center of the draw were enveloped in flames. First on the scene was Captain Yates and his ferry boat. Yates applied his fire apparatus to the flames. He was quickly joined by Captain Brown on board the steamer Alvira who directed a second stream of water into the flames. Steam fire engines were not called in after the decision was made that it would take them too long to get in position. The workers on the bridge tried so hard to lift water from the river with a hand pump that the machine broke. While the total damage was not expected to exceed $1,000 the result would easily have reached $150,000 if the fire had reached the area where the coal and oil had been stored. (19)
In 1888, it was announced that the Dubuque stockholders of the railroad bridge had sold their two-thirds interest to the Illinois Central that already owned one-third. (20) The dual ownership had been a source of conflict. While both the Illinois Central and the stockholders had wanted other rail lines to be able to use the bridge, satisfactory terms could not be reached and other railroads were therefore shut out of Dubuque. The Illinois Central quickly began improvements to the bridge. Designed for the use of small steam engines, the bridge was never intended for heavy trains. The marsh area on the Iowa side of the bridge was filled, and the length of the bridge was shortened by 225 feet. The cost was estimated at $200,000. (21)
The ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD held a contract that called for an annual rental of $80,000 to be paid to the stockholders in addition to a fee for each car that crossed the bridge. The railroad, in purchasing the stockholders interest, stated its desire to lower this rate for itself as well as the other railroads that used the bridge. One immediate beneficiary of the new agreement was the Burlington and Northern Railroad that had to use a transfer boat to ferry its cars across the Mississippi.
A unique incident occurred to the rotating span on July 9, 1897. On a day of intense heat, the bridge refused to open to allow river traffic. It was immediately suspected that heat had caused the span on the bridge to expand. (22) It was not until the next day that the real cause was discovered--the slipping of a nut mashing the threads so it could not be removed. The job of making a new shaft and nuts was given to the IOWA IRON WORKS. (23)
According to M. C. Morphew, engineer of the bridge in 1936 and nephew/son of Carter E. Smith and J. R. Morphew who directed the project, renovation on the bridge took place in 1900. Quoting bridge records in Chicago, the first piece of steel was placed on January 6, 1900 with the last on April 13, 1900--a record for the time. (24) The span was replaced by one that weighed 900-tons. (25) The draw bridge was converted from steam to electricity on March 8, 1930. (26) The power to rotate the span in 1987 was supplied by a 30-horse power electric engine. (27)
It has been suggested that the completion of the bridge stimulated the organization of the DUBUQUE HIGH BRIDGE COMPANY. The success of the railroad bridge indicated to them that a passenger bridge would have at least an equal success. (28)
The bridge today remains generally the same as that which resumed business by 1900.
In 1911 the United States Commerce Commission handed down a notable principal in the case of the railroad commissioners of Iowa against the Illinois Central and other carriers. The case was begun in February, 1908 by Dubuque attorney John Robert WALLER. Waller alleged that the passenger rates (established at thirty cents) across the bridge were excessive and discriminatory and asked the Inter-State Commerce Commission to secure a reduction of the bridge toll. The Commerce Commission ruled:
In the case the complainant urged that a fare of thirty cents charged by the defendant lines for the transportation of passengers over the bridge of the Dunleith and Dubuque Bride Company, between East Dubuque, Illinois and Dubuque, Iowa, was excessive and discriminatory. The commission in a decision handed down by Commissioner Harland held the rate is not excessive, "when viewed from the standpoint of all the carriers participating in the traffic...the fact that the returns are greater than the returns of an ordinary business is not sufficient in itself to justify finding rates are excessive. (29)
In 1985 the bridge was purchased from the Illinois Central by the Chicago Central and Pacific Railroad which was headquartered in Waterloo, Iowa. (30) It was the only railroad to use the bridge. It is later operated by Canadian National Railway as a result of their purchase of the Illinois Central in 1999. (Photo Courtesy: http://dubuque-tour.tripod.com)
In 1995 the railroad bridge was a subject of a safety study. According to Roger Wiebusch who studies navigational safety for the U. S. Coast Guard's Second District in St. Louis, Missouri, the Dubuque bridge has the narrowest draw span and the smallest navigational opening on the Mississippi. (31)
See: CITY LANDMARKS
1. Kruse, Len. My Old Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa: Center for Dubuque History-Loras, 2000, p. 90
2. Donovan, Frank P. Iowa Railroads: The Essays of Frank P. Donovan, Jr. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2000 p. 109
3. "Notice of the Formation of "The Dunleith & Dubuque Bridge Company," The Herald, September 25, 1867, p. 4
4. Dahlinger, Mark, "So IC Train Tunnel Gets Itself Plastered," Telegraph-Herald, June 12, 1955, p. 6
5. "Bridge," Telegraph Herald, April 16, 2001, p. 11. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Y5VdAAAAIBAJ&sjid=slwNAAAAIBAJ&pg=1594,3824388&dq=dunleith+and+dubuque+railroad+bridge&hl=en
6. "The Pontoon Question," Dubuque Herald, November 2, 1878, p. 4. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ZsRCAAAAIBAJ&sjid=WKsMAAAAIBAJ&pg=1538,761477&dq=dunleith+and+dubuque+railroad+bridge&hl=en
7. "A Free Bridge," Dubuque Herald, November 16, 1883, p. 3. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=0cZCAAAAIBAJ&sjid=YasMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4155,1473875&dq=railroad+bridge+dubuque&hl=en
8. Miller, Jim. "Carnegie Talked His Way into Bridge Contract," Telegraph Herald, February 1, 1973, p. 27. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=LoVFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1LwMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5773,287047&dq=dunleith+and+dubuque+railroad+bridge&hl=en
9. Stover, John F. History of the Illinois Central. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc. 1975, p. 136
10. Donovan, p. 109
12. "The Bridge Contract Let," The Herald, January 14, 1868, p. 4
13. Stover, p. 136
14. "John Marvig Railroad Bridge Photography," Online: http://www.johnmarvigbridges.org/Heritage%20Trail%20Truss.html
15. Stover, p. 136
16. Riddell, Amy. "These Men Work Swing Shift Around the Clock," Telegraph Herald, Feb. 24, 1987, p. 48. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=O5tdAAAAIBAJ&sjid=xlwNAAAAIBAJ&pg=3970,4443738&dq=dubuque+wagon+bridge+opening&hl=en
18. "Dubuque Woman Much Be-Titled," Telegraph-Herald, April 12, 1936, p. 16
19. "Damaged by Fire," The Daily Herald, October 30, 1877, p. 4
20. "Fifty Years Ago Ferry Carried Train Over River," Telegraph Herald, April 1, 1923, p. 15. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=NgJIAAAAIBAJ&sjid=88sMAAAAIBAJ&pg=3884,1130234&dq=railroad+bridge+dubuque&hl=en
21. "One Span is Taken Out," Dubuque Daily Herald, November 14, 1899. p. 8. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=EhhBAAAAIBAJ&sjid=cKgMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4895,2533762&dq=railroad+bridge+dubuque&hl=en
22. "Work of Old Sol," Dubuque Herald, July 10, 1897, p. 4
23. "The Stuck Draw," Dubuque Herald, July 11, 1897, p. 8
24. "Dubuque Woman Much Be-Titled,"...
26. Kruse, Len., p. 90
27. Riddell, Amy.
28. "Here is Picture That Will Awaken Old Time Memories," Telegraph Herald, April 8, 1923, p. 15. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=OwJIAAAAIBAJ&sjid=88sMAAAAIBAJ&pg=3883,2040784&dq=dunleith+and+dubuque+railroad+bridge&hl=en
29. "Dubuque Bridge Rate is Held Not Excessive," Telegraph-Herald, February 28, 1911, p. 1
30. Riddell, Amy.
31. Eller, Donnelle. "Railroad Bridge Safety Study Slated," Telegraph Herald, April 5, 1995. p. 1. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=835jAAAAIBAJ&sjid=nXkNAAAAIBAJ&pg=2434,1098423&dq=railroad+bridge+dubuque&hl=en