"SHSI Certificate of Recognition"
"Best on the Web"

Encyclopedia Dubuque


"Encyclopedia Dubuque is the online authority for all things Dubuque, written by the people who know the city best.”
Marshall Cohen—researcher and producer, CNN

Affiliated with the Local History Network of the State Historical Society of Iowa, and the Iowa Museum Association.


From Encyclopedia Dubuque
Jump to navigationJump to search
Past logo of the Dubuque Community School District
Logo adopted in 2013

Superintendents of the Dubuque Community School District:

1895 1910 Franklin T. OLDT

1910 1921 James H. HARRIS

1921 1926 Otis P. FLOWER

1926 1926 Charles PRALL

1926 1930 Fred G. STEVENSON

1930 1940 Earl D. CLINE

1940 1947 Jordan LARSON

(1942-1943) (1944-1945) A.W. Merrill, Acting Supt.

1947 1966 Dr. Max CLARK

1966 1977 Dr. Garlyn WESSEL

1977 1992 Dr. Howard PIGG

1992 1994 Diana LAM

1994 1996 Dr. Marvin O’HARE

1996 1999 Dr. Joel MORRIS

1999 2002 Dr. Jane PETREK

2002 2009 John L. BURGART (Interim 6/02-1/03)

2009 5/3/12 Dr. Larie GODINEZ

5/3/12 6/30/22 Stanton L. RHEINGANS (Interim 5/3-9/19/2012)

7/01/22 Amy HAWKINS

                                Life was different for the children in Iowa. There was a 50-
                                year gap between the first compulsory schooling law in the
                                United States--passed in Massachusetts in 1852--and a similar
                                law in Iowa.
                                      Mack, Jennifer E. and Dustin S. Clarke, "Working 
                                      Hard and Living Out: Adolescence in Nineteenth-
                                      Century Dubuque," State Historical Society of 
                                      Iowa, The Annals of Iowa 79 (Fall 2020), 
                                      p. 311

DUBUQUE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT. The first school in Dubuque was a log cabin erected by James LANGWORTHY and a few miners in December of 1833 along what became 17th Street. George Cubbage (or Cabbage according to other sources), the first teacher, was hired with funds supplied by the miners for the winter of 1833-1834 to teach thirty-five students. Barrett Whittemore taught the second term in 1835 with twenty-five students. Mrs. Caroline Dexter Graves began teaching in Dubuque in 1836. The first female teacher in Dubuque and perhaps the entire state, she was paid $3.00 by the students' parents. From 1836-1839, Mrs. Louisa King and Miss Louisa F. King offered a school for young ladies at her home. Alonzo P. Phelps operated a classical school from 1838-1839. At the same time, a boarding school for young ladies was provided by Mrs. Mary Ann O'Reilly. Thomas Hart Benton, Jr., later the Iowa Superintendent of Public Instruction, opened an English and classical school in Dubuque in 1839. (1)

On January 1, 1839 the Territorial Legislature of Iowa passed a law stating

             there shall be established a common school, or schools 
             in each of the counties of this Territory, which shall 
             be open and free for every class of white citizens 
             between the ages of five and twenty-one years. (2)

The second section of the act provided that the County Board would create districts governed by a board of trustees. Each district was required to maintain school for at least three months annually. Later laws provided for county school taxes which would be used to pay teachers. Whatever additional money was needed was assessed the parents of children according to the amount of time the children were in school. (3)

Despite early interest in schools by the State, nothing was done to establish public education in Dubuque until the spring of 1844. In April 1844, a tax levy was approved and board of education officers were elected. These included Warner LEWIS, president; J. J. E. Norman, secretary; Timothy MASON, treasurer; and William CARTER, director. This board arranged with PRIVATE SCHOOLS to accept any children living within the district. Tuition was paid on a per capita basis. Money remaining in the treasury after the payment of tuition was used to purchase school sites in the First and Third Wards. Records indicate no further activity of the board until 1849 when a tax of 2.5 mills on the dollar was established to construct three schools, one in each of the three wards. (4)

During 1850 contracts were issued for the construction of two one-story brick schools, one in the First Ward and the other for the Third Ward. Each was to serve eighty pupils. Soon after the buildings were completed, the district ran into financial difficulties; the buildings were sold under the Mechanics Lien laws. (5) During 1851, directors of the Third Ward District redeemed their school building. A school census in 1855 indicated that 3,466 children resided within the city.

Dubuque's slow movement toward establishing a school system led the state legislature in 1855 to pass a law making the City of Dubuque a permanent school district. The law further authorized the city council to appoint a board of education to serve until the next city election. (6)

First annual report of the board of education (1856).

No action was taken on this matter by the city council until January 21, 1856. (7) The city council then created a board of education consisting of the MAYOR and one member from each ward in the city. The City Recorder and City Treasurer were given ex-officio status. The board included Dennis MAHONY, First Ward; James A. Reid, Second Ward; James Burt, Third Ward; James R. Goodrich, Fourth Ward, and C. B. Waples, Fifth Ward. At the board's first meeting on February 7, 1856, Mahony was elected President pro tempore.

Friction between the school board and the city council led the entire board to resign. On March 10, 1856, the city council adopted an ordinance that repealed the appointment of the first board. A new board was named including Henry A. WILTSE, Frederick. Ezekiel BISSELL, J. J. E. Norman, J. A. Reed, and S. M. Case. The board first met on March 11 and elected H. A. Wiltse as its president.

The city council appropriated $30,000 for the construction of schools. Contracts for the construction in the 1st and 3rd wards were signed with architect John Francis RAGUE. When the school board surveyed the city, it found there were 2,808 children of school age but because only private schools were operating just 300 children were actually getting an education. (8)

School property in 1857 consisted of:

               2/5 of Lot 447 at the corner 
               of Clay and 12th Street
               part of Lot 602 having a one-
               story brick schoolhouse
               part of Lot 600
               a lot of one acre in the 5th Ward with frame schoolhouse
               two school buildings (1st and 3rd Ward buildings)--1st and
               second stories for primary and secondary with the third story
               for the grammar department. Each could accommodate 800 students. (9)

Difficulties arose again in 1857 between the school board and city council. The board charged that the council could not appropriate funds from the state for anything except schools. The controversy affected the operation of the schools and the payment of teachers. The office of superintendent of district schools was abolished and teachers were paid in DUBUQUE HARBOR IMPROVEMENT COMPANY or city script which rapidly depreciated in value. On March 13th this board of education named by the city council was legislated out of existence by the Iowa legislature. (10)

A new board was elected by the citizens. This board included Henry A. Wiltse, president; and directors Timothy MASON, John H. THEDINGA, and W. H. RUMPF. In May, the board purchased the DUBUQUE FEMALE COLLEGE for $12,000 and opened a high school with 110 students. (11) To enroll, students needed to pass an examination in arithmetic, geography, grammar, and history. George Wallace JONES donated books for the school's library. (Board minutes)

In 1858 the economic panic that had affected the nation for two years finally was felt by the schools in Dubuque. The high school was closed. The grammar schools were only kept open by cutting the teachers' salaries by 50%. Despite the salary reduction, teachers remained in their classrooms. (12) Financial difficulties forced the closing of all schools for the first term in 1861. They were reopened in January, 1862. (13)

Schools at the time were prohibited from enrolling African American children, as such an action would be illegal. Class size, an issue decades later, was already a concern. A limit of sixty students per teacher was set in the Third Ward School while fifty students per teacher was established in the Fifth Ward School. The academic year was divided into three terms and a resolution forbidding the use of tobacco in the schools was adopted. Continued friction between the board and city council was shown when the Board censured the Council for appointing a committee to inspect the Third Ward School. (Board minutes)

In February 1863 County Superintendent J. J. E. Norman reported on the recent teacher institute. He closed his remarks by stating:

              I cannot say I'm entirely in favor of the present fashionable
              mode of conducting institutes; it strikes me there is too much
              done with paid lecturers, and too little by live teachers. (14)

The report to the school board on September 27, 1863 about the start of the new year included the following: (15)

            In the First Ward School, D Room Primary, taught by Miss
            Maggie McKinley, there are one hundred pupils enrolled,
            where there has been as many as one hundred twenty-five
            present at one time...The room seats but seventy-four
            without crowding, fully as many as any one teacher should
            have under her, and more probably than she can do justice to.

On January 15, 1864 school board members were presented with a list of applicants for teaching positions in the district. Balloting then took place with the person receiving the most votes getting the position. A motion was passed that all new and inexperienced teachers would receive $20.00 per month. A motion was then made that teachers with at least one year experience would be paid accordingly:

             Primary Department...........$25.00/month
             Secondary Department.........$30.00/month
             Grammar Department...........$35.00/month
             Assistant Principal..........$40.00/month

This failed to pass. (16)

On May 31, 1864 a petition signed by thirty-two residents was received by the Board requesting that a school for African-American children be opened. (17) Since a private school for these students was open at that time, the Board chose to pay the operator of the school ten dollars per month from May 1, 1864, for each student enrolled. (Board minutes)

In July 1864 those teachers "duly elected by the Board of Education for the coming year" were listed in the Dubuque Democratic Herald. (18)

            The above are all experienced teachers in our schools.
            Positions will be assigned them after the examination
            of new applicants, and when the several vacancies are

Transfers of teachers once they were assigned by the board "after mature consideration" was considered "inexpedient." (19)

            If a teacher should feel aggrieved by being assigned
            to a position that is not agreeable to the party, the
            same can be remedied by a resignation "which the board 
            at all times will be willing to accept.

The condition of several school buildings in 1864 led to the following: (20)

             School House Improvements. The Fifth Ward School
             building is ready for occupancy. Mr. Keenan
             has received the contract and will commence at
             once to strengthen and fasten to the walls, the 
             roofs of the First and Third Ward school buildings to
             (avoid) accidents in the future during heavy gales.

With the approaching NORTHERN IOWA SANITARY FAIR, district officials considered purchasing a ticket for each student rather than offer an end of year "pic nic"(sic). When the president of the fair suggested, however, that the idea was not practical, further action was not taken. (21)

Dubuque's first public high school was held in one of the upper rooms of the original Prescott Elementary School.

In 1865 the District purchased TURNER HALL which was later demolished and became the playground of PRESCOTT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. The high school was opened in 1865 on the top floor with primary students on the lower floors. A large room subdivided into classrooms remained the local high school until 1895. (22) The school board also purchased two acres of land in West Dubuque and erected a school called the "West Dubuque School." At the head of South Dodge Street, on land already owned by the District, the "South Dodge Street School" was constructed. (23)

Recognizing that all teachers were considered candidates for teaching positions each year, the board in 1865 considered the following evaluation procedure: (24)

     1. There shall be an examination of all teachers now employed,
        commencing on the ---day of 18---
     2. That annually, commencing on ---after the close of school
        year, there shall be an examination of all candidates for
            positions for the year next.
     3. That said examinations shall be both oral and written, and
        that the written answers of each candidate be filed with
        the Secretary of the Board.
     4. That no candidate whose average standing in such examinations
        falls below 76% shall receive a certificate. 

On December 15, 1865 a teacher institute offering ideas for teachers to use in their classrooms was held in Dubuque. An article in the Dubuque Herald pointed out how important it was for teachers to attend: (25)

            Question: When a Teachers' Institute is in session and
            teachers have been required to attend, but instead of
            doing so have opened and continued their schools, will
            the County Superintendent be justified in revoking their
            Answer: He will, and it is his duty to revoke them 
            (School Laws of the State of Iowa p. 7) unless
            satisfactory reasons can be given for nonattendance. 

Teachers were paid for the time of their attendance.

Teachers were informed in 1866 that the State Superintendent of Public Instruction had ordered county superintendents to begin withholding certificates from teachers who used profane language. (26)

The public examination of public school education by a committee of the board and hopefully parents at the end of a year was reported in the newspaper. In 1866 one of the examining committee who was also the president of the board of education submitted a report including the following:

            In nearly every room, where students were up to 
            a high proficiency in Mathematics, History and 
            the more general sciences....I could hardly escape 
            the conclusion that proficiency in the above class 
            of studies is erroneously and too commonly considered 
            the real standard of excellence in our public schools
            ....This conviction was fully confirmed by the 
            examinations. With some commendable exceptions, the 
            common branches Orthography, Reading, Grammar and 
            English composition have not received that attention 
            which they should...the consequences of which neglect 
            are painfully evident when the students are called 
            upon to express their ideas on the simplest subject. (27)         

The school census of 1866 showed a great increase in student population over 1865. Responding to the information, plans were drawn for the construction of a school on the northwest corner of Nevada and Fifth STREETS. This became the Fourth Ward School. (28) In July of that year, the president of the board announced plans to re-organize the high school that had been discontinued. Meeting on July 24th, the board entered into an agreement to purchase the lease for the upper stories of Turner Hall and all the property with the exception of the chairs for $500.00. A committee of three board members were appointed to "fit up" the room for a high school. (29) A course of study was also proposed. When the Fourth Ward School was opened in 1867, it was immediately filled to capacity.

Interviews for the principalship of the high school were set to include: (30)

           algebra, natural philosophy, physical geography, geology, 
           botany, chemistry, geometry, plane trigonometry, spherical 
           trigonometry, navigation, surveying, Latin grammar, Greek 
           grammar, Caesar (six books), Virgil's Aeneid (6 books),
           Livy (Preface and 3 books), Demosthenes' oration on the Crown.  

In 1867 the system of student promotions was radically changed. Previously students were promoted based upon annual examinations conducted by teams of citizens chosen for the procedure. In 1866 an article described the following:

             We are aware of the fact that it is poor policy for a 
             reporter to attempt to draw comparisons between anything 
             that he may be describing, but we will venture to assert 
             that Mrs. Knowlton's class in point of orderly deportment, 
             punctual attendance and proficiency in study cannot be 
             surpassed by any class in the State, of their age. The
             reading was marked with expression, life and animation, 
             while their exercises in grammar were truly surprising....
             The decorations of the room, the smiling countenances of 
             the children, the satisfaction of the committee, and above 
             all the ready answers given to all the questions was very 
             easy to witness. (31)    

After consideration, the board proposed that student promotions should be the "reward of general progress" and not for "particular display." The promotions, therefore, were to be made by the principals of the school on the results of examinations "and the general advancement of the pupils in their studies during the term." Examining committees of citizens were appointed to attend the examinations and then to report their findings to the school board. (32)

Varieties of school bells.
Photo courtesy: Tombstone (AZ) Museum

Educational quality was on the minds of board members when, in 1865-1866, they chose to examine all candidates for teaching positions and those already employed as teachers. Persons receiving the highest average on the examinations would be rewarded with employment. The petition for a school for African-American students was again presented. This time the Board rented a church basement and began the school on March 5, 1866. Of the 4,867 school age students in the District, the secretary's report indicated that 2,364 children were enrolled. The average daily attendance was 1,853. (Board minutes)

Reported price gouging by local bookstores angered the board in 1867. The board responded by passing a resolution requesting local bookstores to reduce their prices to those charged by stores in Chicago or face the possibility of the board operating its own bookstore. Teachers were made financially responsible for any books lost or destroyed. (Board minutes)

Crowding in the First and Fifth Ward Schools during the 1868-1869 school year led to classes being divided into morning and afternoon shifts. A request by the German Catholic Congregation School to be considered a public school so that it could share in the school revenues was denied. (33)

On February 9, 1870, the Iowa Legislature passed a law legislating all the directors of independent school districts out of office, and enacted that the board of education in such districts be composed of only six members. The law also stated that at the first meeting of the board each year, the directors would elect a president, secretary and treasurer and that the latter two be chosen outside the board. (34) In April of that year, the "Dodge Street School" accommodating fifty students was completed.

On July 25, 1870, the board passed a resolution discontinuing the separate "colored school" and enrolling the students in the schools near where they lived. (35) In August, however, this action was reconsidered after great protest from white residents and the closing did not occur. The board president cited as the reason for the reconsideration "mingling of the races" leading to "discord in the schools and a virtual exclusion of the colored children." (36)

The first graduation from a high school in Dubuque took place in 1870. Students of the high school, with additional citizen support, purchased an organ for the school and presented it to the board. The Secretary's Report indicated 6,929 children lived within the District and that 2,721 attended public schools. With six male and fifty-seven female teachers, the student-teacher ratio was 43:1. (Board minutes)

In February, 1872 a committee from the board of education was formed to attend to insurance needs. The insurance on school property in the city had been allowed to expire.

Vandalism plagued the district during 1872--1873 to the degree that the board requested the mayor deputize building janitors as special police. (Board minutes) Yielding to public pressure, the board of education suspended all schools on September 13, 1872 so that the "young scholars" could visit the Barnum circus. (37)

In 1873 citizens from the Fifth Ward petitioned the District for a school. Taxes were collected toward the construction of what became the Couler Avenue Schoolhouse. This building was formally opened on November 16, 1874. (38) Physiology was added to the curriculum in 1873. The examination of teachers in this subject was held in the office of the county superintendent during the last week of August. (39)

Records indicate that the average attendance in the high school was 71 students. An exhibition was held in 1874 by students to raise money to purchase a collection of Iowa minerals and a piano. In 1874-1875 a student request to use one of the rooms for a gym was granted. The students, however, had to equip the room and obtain an architect's notice that the activities would not damage the building. (Board minutes)

On March 2, 1874 the Republican and Democratic central committees met in joint session to nominate persons to be voted for at the coming election as members of the independent school board of the City of Dubuque. (40) By an act of the Iowa Legislative on March 19, 1874, normal (teaching) institutes were established in each county to be held annually by the county superintendent. (41) This was the first TEACHER IN-SERVICE program mentioned in records affecting Dubuque teachers. On May 1, 1874 the Board of Education adopted the rule that the president of the board would be given the discretion to grant leaves of absence to teachers. (42) Planning for a three-week normal institute began in June, 1874 with the county superintendent asking local teachers to consider housing teachers coming from outside the city to reduce costs for the visitors. (43)

The three-week teacher institute opened on August 10, 1874. Noted in the Dubuque Herald was the following philosophy emphasized during the program:

         A teacher should consider academic attainments as of the
         first importance; then how to teach; the best methods of
         imparting instruction come next.
         A person may know little or nothing of how to plow, or
         how to prepare ground for seed, and yet if he scatter
         forth good seed, he may get something; but if he knows
         all about preparing the ground, when to sow seed and how,
         and if the cultivation is given and the sower sows
         sand, there is no crop, no result. (44)

Attendance at the institute was not required, but "young and inexperienced" teachers could not expect to receive certificates higher than the lowest grade, unless they demonstrated regular attendance for the length of the program. Each participant was expected to pay one dollar to help pay for the institute and another dollar for registration. The length of the institute was decided by the county superintendent but by law it could not be less than "one week of six days." The Dubuque Herald stated that these were held in June, July or August when:

           they (the teachers) should go fishing, ramble in woods
           and dells, study nature and from her vast store house
           eliminate new strength against the day of school labor. (45)

The annual examination of teachers for a primary, secondary or grammar certificate was held in the high school on June 28, 1875. Applicants for a high school or principal of grammar school certificate were examined on July 5th.

            Candidates receiving an average of not less than 90% 
            in an examination on algebra, geometry, trigonometry, 
            natural philosophy, physiology, astronomy, geology, 
            chemistry, rhetoric, Latin and Greek shall be entitled 
            to a high school certificate.
            Candidates receiving an average of not less than 90% in
            an examination on arithmetic, algebra, geometry, natural
            philosophy, physiology, and astronomy shall be entitled
            to a principal of grammar school certificate.
            Candidates receiving an average of not less than 90% in
            an examination on penmanship, orthography, definitions,
            reading, mental arithmetic, geography, grammar, history
            of the United States, universal history, physical
            geography, physiology, constitution of the United States,
            algebra through simple equations, and theory and practice
            of teachers shall be entitled to a grammar certificate.
            Candidates receiving an average of not less than 80% in
            the last named branches shall be entitled to a secondary
            certificate; and candidates receiving an average of not
            less than 70% shall be entitled to a primary certificate. (46)

Teachers' names and their scores were posted in the newspaper. (47)

In 1875 the Board was petitioned by 500 parents wishing their children to be taught the German language in school. After principals polled their students and found that 373 students were interested, special teachers were hired to teach German classes one hour after school every day except Friday. After a trial period of one term, it was decided that students in 10th "class" and 11th "class" were not sufficiently trained in grammar to make the class profitable. It was maintained for those in the 12th "class." (48)

The contract for supplying wood to heat the public schools in 1875-1876 was awarded to Philip PIER. The amount contracted was 450 cords of first-class white oak at a price of $5.25 per cord. (49)

The water company in August 1875 decided to end the practice of allowing water hydrants along the streets to be available for private use. Keys to those hydrants were to be collected as soon as alternative sources of water could be established by placing hydrants on school yards. (50)

On September 20, 1875, the board of education took up the question of students taking special classes. It was decided that students could take special courses as long as they were not in advance of the class to which the student belonged. (51)

In September 1875 the board of education voted down the idea of admitting African American children into the ward schools. The petition was refused because it was thought to be in the best interests of the children themselves not to mix them with the white children "where they would be subjected to insults and annoyances." "There was no political party feeling on the board relative to the matter. The vote for it consisted of two Republicans and two Democrats while against it was one Republican and one Democrat." (52) The board appointed Miss Minnie Blackwedel teacher of the "colored school" located at Locust and 7th since the parents of the school could not agree on someone of their own choosing. (53)

African American children attempted to attend ward schools during the winter of 1876-1877, but were denied admission. In 1878 black students had to pay $5.00 per month for attending the "colored school" compared to an average of $1.22 for white students in the public schools. (54) On February 19, 1877 the board was taken to District Court over the issue, but instructed its counsel not to offer any defense. The decision of the court allowed Louisa J. Howard, and thus all African American children, the right to attend public schools. (55)

Shade trees were planted around the ward schools in April of 1876. The Dubuque Herald editorial staff commented that the addition would lend much to the attractiveness of those institutions of learning as well as the city. (56) In May, the semi-monthly teacher institute was held with a presentation made entitled "Thoughts From the Classroom." Mrs. O. E. Wells of the Third Ward School began by stating," I will not confine myself to any one branch of study, or to any one element, but will give you some thoughts which have come to me, time to time, during my busiest moments." (57) Those in attendance at the August institute came under the careful "eye" of the editorial staff of the Dubuque Herald which commented:

               Those who desire to see a congregation of handsome
               girls are referred to the teacher's institute now
               in session. (58)

Enrollment in the high school in 1876 had increased so much that the board of education had to take action. It ordered all the desks to be taken up and moved slightly closer together. This created space for another row of desks on each side and one across the front of the classroom. (59)

High school courses beginning in the 1876-1877 school year were divided into three classes. Business courses lasted three years. Classical, Latin, and science each required four years to complete. Students graduating with an average of ninety or better from the four-year courses were presented a Teacher's Grammar Certificate. Those graduating with an average from eighty to ninety received Teacher's Secondary Certificates. By 1877 most courses were extended to four years. Four year Latin, science and classical courses were continued after 1877 along with two-year business courses. After 1885 the classical course was discontinued. In 1895 the Board of Education realized that most students were enrolling in the two-year business course. This program was soon discontinued, and high school became a four-year program. (Board minutes)

The program for each of the teacher institutes for 1876-1877 was decided on September 23, 1876. The schedule decided upon was:

                 First: roll call, reception of communications from the
                 board of education or other parties, miscellaneous 
                 Second: reading of a selected chapter from some work
                 on didactics, followed by a general discussion, such
                 discussion to be opened by two individuals appointed
                 at the previous meeting, the opening speeches to be
                 limited to five minutes.
                 Third: recess of fifteen minutes
                 Fourth: presentation of class drills in the different
                 sections, the sections to be constituted as follows:
                   Section A: to include all those teaching in the
                   grammar department and the high school
                   Section B: to include all those teaching in the
                   secondary department
                   Section C: to include all those teaching in the
                   primary department
                   Each section to be in charge of one of the principals
                   as permanent chairman. The class drills to be
                   conducted by teachers who shall be appointed  at the
                   previous meeting by the chairman of the section,
                   and such drills to be given upon some study of the
                   grade to which the section belongs, the subject to
                   be announced at the time the conductor is appointed
                   Fifth: after the presentation of class drills and the
                   discussion upon them, the three sections shall be
                   brought together as a general section and a systematic
                   course of exercises shall be given by someone appointed
                   for the purpose by the principal who shall have
                   permanent charge of this section, each lecturer
                   occupying as many sessions in succession as shall be
                   needed to present his subject.
                   Sixth: announcement of the program for the next meeting
                   Seventh: adjournment (60)

In October 1876 the board of education considered eliminating recess at the high school and dismissing school an hour earlier. The change resulted in class running without interruption from 9:00 a.m. until noon and then from 1:30 p.m. until 4:00 p.m. The board left the decision to the students and teachers. They voted and by a wide margin approved the change. (61) On November 2, 1876 notice was given that school in the afternoon would begin at 1:00 p.m. (62)

In 1877 the Iowa state superintendent of schools declared there were no legal holidays for teachers unless declared by the district's directors. Twenty days constituted a school month. (63)

Safety of the schools was raised as a concern in May, 1877. During the previous winter, a committee of the city council had inspected public buildings including schools to see what renovation was needed. The school board hired an architect and among the potential issues were changes in staircases, doors opening outward, strengthening walls, and new ceilings. Work was to be done during the summer vacation. (64) On June 30, 1877 the board of education was advised that the renovations would cost $6,372.50 in addition to stone hearths for each of the schools at $15.00 each. (65)

The following article appeared in the January 1, 1878 issue of the Dubuque Herald: (66)

                 Miss Johanna B. Doyle, the school teacher, and Mr. 
                 Burke, were "called" in church last Sunday, which
                 means a marriage is in the near future. The bride
                 intended has sent in her resignation as a teacher
                 to the board of education. And now comes the
                 scramble for the place.

In January, 1878 the board published the twelfth annual report in pamphlet form. Entitled "Public Schools of Dubuque," this was the first report in ten years and was the work of Thomas HARDIE. (67) During that summer, the Ruttan system of heating and ventilation was introduced into the First, Third, and Fifth Ward schools. This resulted in the end of heating by steam and ventilating by windows. This was soon added to the Fourth Ward School. (68)

In an article in the Dubuque Herald on April 2, 1878, Treasurer Joseph HEROD reported that in the month of March the district had paid its teachers $3,447.50 and that other expenses had come to $530.25. This placed the per pupil cost, based on average daily attendance, at $1.49. (69)

In July 1879 proposals to introduce telephones into the schools were tabled for further consideration. (70)

Drawing was started in the schools during the 1880-1881 academic year. Since the board did not wish to hire specialists, teachers were requested to attend classes to learn how to teach the new subject. (Board minutes) In 1880 Dubuque's public schools were served by seventy-three teachers of whom three were "specials" giving instruction in German. Sixty of the teachers had been educated locally. At the end of the 16th year, students were given competitive examinations. A score of 70% or higher entitled the student to entrance in high school. (71)

The course of study in 1880 was considered a "perfect and excellent one." (72)

             Primary Department--reading, spelling, counting, mental
             and practical arithmetic, printing, writing, definitions,
             and oral instructions.
             Secondary Department--reading, spelling, definitions,
             punctuation, geography, penmanship, mental and practical
             arithmetic, and oral instructions.
             Grammar Department--reading, spelling, mental and practical
             arithmetic, grammar, geography, penmanship, composition,
             United States history, physics and oral instruction.
             High School (first year)--arithmetic, Latin, physiology, 
             algebra, botany, English composition, German and book-
             keeping. (second year)--algebra, Caesar, general history,
             geometry, commercial arithmetic, natural philosophy, 
             geology, chemistry, Constitution and political economy, 
             and German. (third year)--geometry, Cicero, Greek, 
             natural philosophy, chemistry, and geology. (fourth year)--
             trigonometry and surveying, Virgil, Anabasis, rhetoric and
             English literature, natural philosophy, Constitution and
             political economy.

In September 1880 County Superintendent made out certificates for successful candidates at the recent normal institute. There were fifty applicants of which 16 failed. The major weakness was arithmetic. The questions asked were posted in the Dubuque Herald as follows: (73)

              1. Name the fundamental rules of arithmetic and 
                 give examples to illustrate the use of the 
                 signs used in each, also name the result of 
                 each operation.
              2. Define the greatest common divisor, least common 
                 multiple, common denominator, and least common 
              3. Divide 2/3 of 3 1/2 by the sum of 21-5, 5 1/2 
                 and 35-9 and multiply the result by 7/8 of 2/3.
              4. Change 3/8 to a decimal, multiple the result by 
                 three thousandths, divide by five thousandths, 
                 and subtract three hundredths.
              5. A horse sell for $198 which is ten percent less 
                 than his asking price, and his asking price was 
                 ten percent less than he cost.
                 What did the horse cost?
              6. What is the amount due on a note of $500, bearing 
                 the date of September 14, 1871, and paid July 5, 
                 1873, at Iowa rate?
              7. If the longitude of Dubuque is 9 degrees 45 minutes 
                 west and that of Paris is 7 degrees 15 minutes east 
                 what time is it in Paris when it is 12 min. in 
              8. A person having an avordupois pound of silver to 
                 have it made into spoons weighing 1 oz 9wt 4 grs. 
                 each, how many will be have?
              9. A square field contains ten acres is surrounded 
                 by a fence six feet high, what did the lumber cost 
                 at $14 per m. ?
             10. How many square feet are contained in the surface containing 91,125
                 cubic feet?
Photo courtesy: Telegraph Herald

Drug education started in the district during the 1886-1887 school year. A course, written to comply with a new state law, was introduced which showed the effects of alcohol, stimulants and narcotics on the human body. The student teacher ratio had risen to 54:1. (Board minutes)

Under the heading "Our Public Schools," a list of forty-four students was displayed in the January 30th edition of the Dubuque Herald showing the students who had received the required average of 70% for promotion to the high school. Of note was the fact that Anna LAWTHER was the third highest scoring student with an average of 90.7.

In June 1890, the following article appeared (in part) in the Dubuque Herald: (74)

            Another peculiarity of our public schools is that most
            of the extras, that have been gradually introduced into
            so many of the schools in other places, have been
            religiously excluded here.  The course of instruction is
            confined to the branches originally intended to be
            taught in schools. The curriculum is limited to the
            the usual branches of a public school education; and
            those who have desired their children taught in other
            matters have had to seek for it elsewhere. Among the
            extras that have been excluded here, that is where no
            extra teachers are employed to instruct in them, are
            such matters as singing, drawing, military drills,
            sketching, cooking, manual labor, gymnastics and various
            other fads that could be enumerated.
            As a result, it has subjected our schools to some
            criticism at school gatherings, institutes, and
            educational associations, where the professors and
            advocates of these different systems are apt to abound,
            but we have never heard of any complaint on that score
            from patrons of the schools.

With as many as 60 students without a place to sit, calls were made for a new high school.

Schools were renamed on September 23, 1889. (75) The schools with their former and new names were:

First Ward School--FRANKLIN SCHOOL









Dodge Street School--Morse School

The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company created a container for its tobacco that could be easily converter to a student's lunchbox. Photo courtesy: Massie Heritage Center, Savannah, Georgia

In the 1890s when the high school was built on Fifteen and Locust Street, Joseph Herod, Treasurer of the School Board, was the "watch dog" of the construction. His reward was one dozen cut glass tumblers. As school treasurer, Herod made the round of schools to pay each in hard cash. The receipt form was signed promptly and then he moved on to the next room--then the next school. (76)

Lots 359 and 360 at the corner of 17th and White Streets were purchased for $700.00 and for $2,576.65. The PETER COOPER SCHOOL was constructed on this site. (Board minutes)

In January 1892 the board of education received a letter from the secretary of Wheaton College in Illinois announcing a prize $25 scholarship to be awarded to the senior of DUBUQUE HIGH SCHOOL with the highest rank in his/her class. The board petitioned the Iowa General Assembly to establish a "school for deaf mutes" in eastern Iowa and locate the same in Dubuque. (77)

Irving School, rebuilt after being destroyed by fire the same year, became in 1892 the first public school in the district to be heated by steam and provided with indoor toilets. Truch, Southworth and Company were granted permission to mine beneath the Lincoln School grounds for two years. (Board minutes)

The first edition of the High School Record was published in October, 1892 by the Dubuque High School Literary Society. Officers of the society included Joseph H. Nicol, editor; and Harker Brentnal SPENSLEY, Sr. and W. G. Hurd associate editors. (78) German students formed a German literary society. The goals of the group were to increase their knowledge of German, start a German library, and to decorate the German room in the school. (79)

The former public high school in Dubuque, this Romanesque architecture building served many years as the administrative building for the Dubuque Community School District.

By a vote of 956 to 235, Dubuque voters in 1893 approved issuing $75,000 in bonds for the construction of what became CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL. The P. J. Lee lots at the corner of 15th and Locust were purchased for $15,000 as its location. G. Stanley Mansfield of Freeport, Illinois, was employed as the architect. In early October with trains running as early as 3:30 a.m., the board of education closed the schools on "Chicago Day" so more people could visit the World's Fair.

The office of superintendent had been abolished in the school system and it was not until 1893 that the suggestion of reinstating the position was made. (80) The issue was discussed by the Board while in public the Herald opposed the idea and the Times and Telegraph supported it. The issue was finally decided by the hiring of Franklin T. Oldt. (81)

Concerned that young boys with jobs were falling behind academically, the school board in 1893 agreed to establish a night school at Prescott with students and those requesting the school to pay all costs. On March 13th, the opening night, Thomas J. IRISH was amazed at 7:00 p.m. to find eighty-six young men and boys ready to participate. Overwhelmed by the number, Irish dismissed the more advanced until he could determine a way to classify them. The rest were given preliminary instruction and dismissed at 9:00 p.m. (82)

Dubuque Daily Herald, September 6, 1896

The high school, dedicated on January 17, 1895, was occupied by students on February 4, 1895, and used until the opening of DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL in 1923. On January 28, 1895 the board announced that "one or two rooms, if necessary" were to set aside in the old high school building or one of the other school buildings for the establishment of kindergarten in the district. Among the reasons given were that statistics showed that a "very large portion" of students entering school had to leave it midway through the grammar school level and progressive schools nationwide were providing this program with success. This action, however, was halted at the meeting on January 31st. The issue was to be referred to a special committee "at which time it is hoped a full board will be present. (83) The Dubuque Daily Herald on February 7, 1895 announced that the issue was resolved at the February 6, 1895 school board meeting. Kindergarten was added and a committee of three appointed to prepare one or two rooms in the old high school. The vote was three in the affirmative to two against. The Dubuque Daily Herald of October 2, 1895 reported that Superintendent Oldt had established a new rule. No high school student would be enrolled in the next higher class if he or she scored less than 70% in more than one study.

In September, 1896 Superintendent Oldt proposed to the board of education that an ungraded room be established in the near future to address the needs of students who needed additional preparation to advance in a grade or who had come to realize the necessity of an education and were, because of their age now able to do much more work in a given term than could be accomplished in a grade. (84)

Teachers' salaries were studied by a committee of the Board during the 1897-1898 school year. After comparing salaries in Dubuque with surrounding cities, the committee's report was adopted, and some salaries were cut. (Board minutes)

In 1897 the district, by state law, had to have the "elements of music" taught in all schools. In those cases where music was not taught by special teachers, the classroom teacher had to satisfy the county superintendent of their ability to teach the subject. No teacher, however, could be denied a certificate to teach or have their certificate lowered because they were unable to sing. (85)

In January, 1898, Dubuque had thirteen public school buildings. There were 5,756 children enrolled. (86) During 1898-1899 a resolution was introduced to include music in the curriculum. The resolution was defeated by the Board in a vote of four to one. The faculty of the District then consisted of sixteen men and one hundred twelve women that, with the student enrollment of 5,174, resulted in a student-teacher ratio of 40:1. (Board minutes)

Beautifying the schools seemed a goal in 1899. In that year the superintendent arranged for an exhibition of pictures in Temple Hall. Admission of ten cents was charged the public. The collection of $185 was used to purchase picture frames which were distributed among the schools. "This was the beginning of better things in classroom decoration." (87) A few months later, kindergarten rooms were given "casts." The educational committee of the DUBUQUE WOMEN'S CLUB was assisted by other groups in presenting "A Trip Around the World." The $810 collected was used to purchase pictures and statuary for every classroom. In 1900 a "dingy" room at Prescott was converted into a "model room" with the entire cost of $400 being paid by Mrs. F. D. Stout. (88)

Graduation announcement in 1904

In 1903 night school was offered in the District. (89) John McCabe was elected the District's first Truant Officer and began his duties in September 1903. Following a two week Christmas vacation, students returning to Lincoln School found students in kindergarten transferred from the Gregoire residence on West Fifth to a new building purchased adjoining the school. The Mother's Club of the kindergarten was to furnish the room. The new Fulton School was also opened for the first time. (90) Schools were dismissed on June 2nd at noon, but students were expected to return at 4:00 p.m. to accompany their teacher to the reception for President Theodore Roosevelt. (Board minutes)

Lack of business and school board support was the reason given for lack-luster athletics at the high school in 1903: (91)

  The business men of the town do not take an active
  interest in the sports of the school. In towns like
  Davenport, Clinton and Rock Island, the teams are
  backed by the board of education. This assures the
  people, who put money into the game, that their
  money will be refunded if the season is unsuccessful.
  The Clinton high school boys are presented with suits
  by the business men of that city the day before their
  Dubuque game and the Davenport boys with hats.
             When a number of boys who work together see that the
             business men are with then, they will work.

The same year in an editorial in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald the subject of teacher pay was raised. On May 12, 1903 the newspaper pointed to the fact that Sioux City was paying its teachers much more. "There is no warrant for this condition." The paper noted that the DUBUQUE WOMAN TEACHERS' CLUB was "pursuing a commendable policy in seeking to secure salary advances for themselves." The paper also noted that the organization had stated that "very few teachers wish to put on more style in dress, but that they did wish to travel more."

In what was called the "introduction of manual training into the local public schools," raffia work was begun in a number of the lower grades. Announced in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald on April, 24, 1903, basket weaving the the next step fro paper weaving in which paper mats and boxes, "daisy chains," a pictures were created. Time which was formerly devoted entirely to pencil work was now divided between drawing and raffia. Educators claimed the weaving was even more important than drawing because it taught "practical demonstration, reproduction of lines, and inspired interest in the school work.

In January, 1904, Prof. F. T. Oldt, served as chairman of the committee on phonetic spelling at the State Teachers' Convention in Des Moines. He introduced resolutions, which were adopted, endorsing the simplified spelling of such words as thoro, thru, demogog, thorofare, etc. (92)

Dubuque schools received a gold medal for written work and shared another gold medal with the East Des Moines and Burlington Schools for best drawings submitted as part of the Iowa State Exhibit at the St. Louis World's Fair during the 1904—1905 school year. In his first annual report to the Board, John McCabe, the new truant officer, detailed the one hundred five cases he had investigated since taking office. In 1906 "OLD FIFTH" was torn down. (Board minutes)

In 1905 the school board was faced with a request to have the only African American girl removed from the high school. The request was made by the parents of a girl who had just moved to Dubuque from Texas. The board stood firm against honoring the request; the white girl left the school. (93)

In 1906 the desire for reading material by adults living in the North End was so great that the schools were asked for help. "The district being so far out from the public library and the residents of the same desiring reading matter all of the time...a splendid new supply (of books from the public library) will be added to those books already in the school libraries and the schools will be made regular distributing centers." (94)

A period of "soft weather" In late February 1920 led to a large number of students and adults becoming ill. To prevent the further spread of illness, the superintendent ordered the fumigation of every school.

1908 Promotion card from Lincoln Elementary School. Photo courtesy: Bob Reding
In 1908-1909 the idea of free textbooks for students was rejected by the board of education

During the 1908-1909 school year, the Palmer Handwriting Method was introduced in the District. Manual training was also made a part of the seventh and eighth grade curricula. (Board minutes)

In June 1909 St. Raphael's school petitioned to be accredited as a high school. The idea of free textbooks in the schools was voted down by the board. (95) The school board's committee on course of study reported that pupils from any parochial school whose course of study was presented to the city superintendent and approved by him could be admitted to the high school upon conditions similar to those governing the admission of pupils from the grammar department of the public schools.

Boys could "help" carry their girlfriend's books with this two handle leather book strap. Massie Heritage Center, Savannah, Georgia

The pupils of the upper eight grades were given two tests at times designated by the superintendent. If the combined monthly report marks and the test average in any subject was 80 or more, the pupil would be excused from the final examination in that subject. If the average was less than 80, a final examination would have to be taken with the questions furnished by the superintendent. When final examinations were necessary, the average required for promotion was 75% or more and the minimum in arithmetic and grammar had to be at least 70%. At the close of every semester, a complete report giving monthly report, test and final examination marks of all the pupils of the grade was given to the superintendent on forms provided by him. (Board minutes)

1909 Report card from Lincoln Elementary School. Photo courtesy: Bob Reding

The question of whether to have sex education in the schools was raised in 1910. While the wife of Iowa Governor Carroll was a strong advocate for such a program, local feelings were mixed. Superintendent Oldt stated, "It would be well to leave some obligations with the parents." He continued,"Have young teachers teach the boy or girl the mysteries of life? Why, they have not matured enough to do so--they do not have the mother instinct in the first place." (Note: As late as 1949 in Cedar Rapids, female teachers who married were dismissed.) Miss Balcolm, superintendent of nurses at the Finley Hospital Training School, agreed with Superintendent Oldt, but believed many children received no parental guidance and therefore thought a program in the school would be a good idea. (96)

The announcement in May 1910 that Zeta Beta Psi Sorority would withdraw from the high school again raised the question of having fraternities and sororities in the public schools. There were still four secret societies in the high school: Phi Sigma, Alpha Omega, and Phi Delta fraternities and Iota Sigma sorority. The average membership ranged from six to ten with a large number of alumni. One of the differences between the secret societies in Dubuque and elsewhere was the absence of a room or house. Another problem elsewhere was the control of these societies over athletics. (97)

In May, Superintendent Harris met with the board of education. As a result of the meeting, the superintendent was given the power to visit a number of Iowa schools. The intended result was having medical inspection of the Dubuque public schools. Superintendent Harris was an advocate of medical inspection believing, with others, that the cause of many "backward children" was various physical ailments. The "open-air" school did not come up during the discussion, but it was expected that "with medical inspection the children predisposed to tuberculosis would be given plenty of fresh air while at their studies." (98) In July, 1910 a plan was described to hire the district's first "school nurse" to visit homes and then report cases to the home, physicians, or specialists. (99) The District also decided to introduce a course in stenography and typewriting in the high school. (100)

1912 Graduation Announcement. Photo courtesy: Joseph Jacobsmeier
IMG 3360.jpg

In 1911 when the district ended one year and began another, teachers who were kept on staff were "re-elected." In that year, a new salary schedule was adopted for the grade teachers. The schedule called for a uniform increase of fifty dollars--twenty-five dollars in each of the next two years. (101)

Merchants along Clay Street petitioned the board to abandon Prescott School on April 25, 1912. They complained that the building was unsafe and that the traffic posed both a noise problem for the students as well as a hazard. The board chose the half block facing White Street between 12th and 13th Streets for the new Prescott Elementary School. (Board minutes) In the same year, the small school at Dodge Street and Fremont Avenue known as the Morse School was closed.

While serving as a Trustee at Cornell University, Andrew CARNEGIE was shocked to discover that teachers, “one of the highest professions,” in his words, earned less than his clerks and lacked retirement benefits. In 1905, he established the Carnegie Teachers Pension Fund. In 1914 the Telegraph Herald, on February 1st noted that a letter was passed around at the reception for James Walsh, principal of Irving School. Those signing the letter recommended that he be added to those receiving this pension. This was prior to the establishment of the Iowa Public Employees Retirement System.

FRATERNITIES/SORORITIES in the high school were banned by action of the board in 1913-1914. Members of Zeta Beta Psi and Iota Beta Phi sororities and Alpha Omega, Phi Sigma, Phi Delta and Phi Sigma fraternities resigned during the 1914--1915 school year to comply with the Board ruling. (Board minutes)

On October 6, 1916, a petition was filed with the board for the construction of a new Bryant Elementary School. Of the 11,427 children living within the District, 3,152 attended public school. With the staff numbering fifteen men and one hundred thirty-one women the student teacher ratio was 27:1. (Board minutes)

In 1918 the board of education was praised for encouraging children in Dubuque to learn how to swim. The interest was a result of a high school and upper grammar grades census taken in the latter part of May. This showed that 276 pupils in the high school and 311 in the seventh and eighth grades of the grammar schools were unable to swim but interested in learning. In July the board announced that swimming lessons would be provided beginning on July 9th at the municipal bathing beach near EAGLE POINT. The instructor for the boys was Mr. G. H. Westby of Chicago. Miss Ella H. Schneider of Chicago was hired to teach swimming to the girls. (Board minutes)

Communal paste jar from which students could fill their own paste containers.

On November 19, 1919, a $50.00 bonus was approved by the Board for all teachers retroactive to the beginning of school in September. The amount was paid at a rate of five dollars per month. (Board minutes) Residents of the 5th Street hill area was angered in 1919 when the school board decided to construct a new high school on the site and began condemnation proceedings against opposing residents. The case went to district court and the site of the school was changed. (102)

Students in Dubuque public schools were involved in a fund drive in March 1920 to aid Armenia and residents of the Near East. Counting the money at the board of education revealed that $458.85 had been collected with Lincoln Elementary School the clear leader with a total of $97.47. (103)

"Part-time school" concerned Superintendent Harris in 1920. These schools were compulsory under Iowa law for all cities and towns with more than fifteen boys or girls between the ages of 14 and 16 who worked in factories, stores or other places of employment. Standards established by the State Board of Vocational Instruction stated that not less than eight hours of instruction per week were to be offered during the term of the public schools and the part-time school hours would be between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Any parent violating the law would be punishable by a fine of not less than $10 or more than $50 and any employer by a fine of not less than $20 or more than $100 or be imprisoned in jail for not more than thirty days. Enforcement would be carried out through the school board, the state department of public instruction, and the county superintendent of schools. (104)

Handbill from 1920 urging support for the construction of a new high school. Photo courtesy: Bob Reding.

At a special election held on May 15, 1920, voters approved the construction of a new high school by a margin of 51 percent. Condemnation proceedings were begun on one site, but rescinded on May 25 when it was decided to buy the West Locust Street site at the corner of Seminary Street and West Locust, the present site of Dubuque Senior High School. The land, purchased from the SISTERS OF CHARITY OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY (BVM), cost $45,335. Teachers with five or more years of experience received a salary increase effective in 1921 of $400. Teachers with less experience received $30.

In April, 1920 J. H. Harris, superintendent of schools, continued his campaign to convince Dubuque residents of the benefits of establishing junior high schools. Although the district needed a new high school, he stated that other Iowa communities like Davenport and Cedar Rapids had already established or were establishing junior highs. In speaking to the DUBUQUE WOMEN'S CLUB he stated:

       Most of the people do not understand what 
       is meant by a junior high school. The 
       pupils in this city now in the seventh and 
       eighth grades and in the first year of high 
       school would be students of the new school 
       and they would be taught foreign languages, 
       laboratory work, physical training, manual 
       training and numerous other things. Most of 
       the children in America complete their 
       education when they finish the eighth grade 
       and in the new school these children, before 
       they leave school, would have at least one 
       year of high school. (105)

In April, 1920 a petition was submitted to the board of education asking for a special election regarding the future of junior high schools in Dubuque. (106) On June 3, 1920, voters approved a proposal to erect two junior high schools. (Board minutes)

Sites for the junior high schools (now WASHINGTON MIDDLE SCHOOL and JEFFERSON MIDDLE SCHOOL) were selected on April 22, 1921, and January 7, 1922, respectively. Preliminary plans for the junior high on Grandview were approved in June, 1921. (107) In 1921 summer school was again offered in the district after an absence of three years due to cost and a lack of student attendance. Courses for those who had fallen behind in their regular work were held at Lincoln, Fulton, Audubon and Prescott. (108) The board adopted a resolution during the 1922-1923 school year barring the employment of married women as teachers. (Board minutes)

In 1922 a thrift course was adopted by the board of education. In practice in over two hundred schools nationwide over the preceding seven years, the program was designed to encourage students to deposit money into savings accounts. Schools and their participation rates included Jackson (41%), Bryant (51%), Fulton (52%), Peter Cooper (55%), Irving (55%), Prescott (59%), Franklin (65%), Audubon (65%), and Marshall (69%). (109) According to "Dubuque Schools Adopt Bank Plan," (Telegraph Herald, Feb. 8, 1922) a 4% interest was paid on deposits.

In 1923 Superintendent Otis P. Flower introduced the new system of 6-3-3 school organization. Such an organization "would place children of various mental capacity in various groups for more efficient development." (110) The same year, the COMMITTEE OF NINE completed its investigation of grade school textbooks for alleged un-American materials. (Board minutes)

On May 15, 1925 Dubuque Senior High School held an open house for working parents. Classes began at 2:00 p.m. instead of 9:00 a.m. and ran until 8:50 p.m. Every class was held, examples of work were on display, and the cafeteria was open from 5:35 to 7:35 to allow working parents to see how a day of school was operated. (111)

On May 25, 1925 police were used to clear the room of many spectators during a meeting of the school board. (112) Intent upon hearing the case against Superintendent Otis P. FLOWER, the spectators objected to the board going into executive session. (113) The board then met in executive session and asked Flower for his resignation. On July 17, 1925 the board rescinded their action. (114) Flower served until 1926.

The year 1926 could be called "The Year of the Superintendents." In what was clearly a divided board of education, struggles with each other and the superintendent led Otis P. Flower to leave, Charles Prall was hired and then almost immediately resigned, and finally former DUBUQUE HIGH SCHOOL principal Fred G. STEVENSON was hired. In the hiring of Stevenson, disagreements among board members even included how much he earned at his last position. There was even this statement quoted from one board member in the newspaper: (115)

           In the third place, I will agree that Mr. Stevenson
           has some friends in Dubuque, but I want to say here
           and now that he has a great many more enemies than
           friends in Dubuque.

Public records of school board meetings in 1926 also showed the arbitrary nature of teacher payment. The following information came from a meeting of the board on May 25, 1925: (116)

                  Mrs. Becker (secretary) then read a list of 
            recommendations for raising teachers' salaries,
            the recommendations being those of the education
            committee. The list follows:
                  Ellen Jones, $500, because she has been 
                      changed to a principalship
                  Leo McDonough, $100; C. M. Sarff, $300; 
                  Mr. Demkier, $400; Mary Hogan, $50; Mr. 
                  Garner, $100; and James More, $200
                After the list had been read, Mr. Hoerner 
            (board member) asked,"Are we raising these teachers'
            salaries on merit or on request."
                "You may vote as you choose. The raises are the
            recommendations of the education committee and
            I move their acceptance," was Mrs. Becker's reply.
                After making the motion, Mrs. Becker declared that
            all the other teachers were to receive the same
            salaries as last year.
                Mr. Davenport (board member) inquired,"Why should
            we do this? What is the reason?
                Mrs. Becker replied that she had given a specific
            reason in each instance.
                "What about Miss Lindermann? Shouldn't she have a
            raise?" inquired Mr. Davenport.
                Superintendent Flower then asked,"What about Mr.
            Hallman? I recommended him for a raise of $100."
                Mrs. Becker replied that,"We can't raise everyone."

Sixth grade students with grades of 90% or better were qualified to take part in a unique conservation program in 1926 and 1927. Joseph Flynn, the county superintendent of schools, the local Kiwanis club, and the Dubuque Poultry Association distributed pheasant eggs to interested students for hatching. The eggs were received from the Wallace-Evans Game Farm in St. Charles, Illinois. Students were contacted later as to the number of birds hatched and where they were released. A total of 550 eggs were distributed in 1926 with 350 in 1927. (117)

Mothers of students at Bryant Elementary in 1927 announced their intention of implementing an organized program of sun bathing at their children's school. It was their belief that ultraviolet rays from the sun would strength the children and help prevent disease. All that was required was grouping the students in a manner to be sure each had a specified amount of exposure to the light. Separate boys' and girls' groups would be used with the boys group beginning the program. "As little clothing as possible would be worn...since the ultraviolet rays do not penetrate materials from which clothing is made." The group intended to take their idea to the President's Council of PTA in the city and then to the school board. (118)

In 1927 the district created the position of dean of girls at the high school. The first person to hold the job was Harriet Greenhow, a former principal of LINCOLN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL and then the head of the Latin department at the high school. In the fall of 1927, the district received a letter from Clara M. Wallace, state superintendent of normal training in high schools. In the company of the county superintendent, she had visited the Normal Training High School at Dubuque on November 27, 1927. Superintendent Wallace described the program as "small but outstanding." "Students were getting splendid training and should make fine rural teachers. We trust you will use your influence in trying to help get these girls placed in the rural schools of Dubuque County when they are ready to teach." (119)

During the 1928-1929 academic year, junior high classes at Central School were discontinued. The move of junior high classes from Central to Jefferson and Washington had been begun in July with the removal of the ninth grade at Central to the two other junior high schools. The movement of the seventh and eighth grades was to be finished at the end of the first semester. The building was then to be used for the board's administrative offices, a part-time school and for a school of "special opportunities" for full time pupils. The movement of students ended in January. Superintendent Stevenson reported his discovery that the board in 1920, before submitting the proposal to the voters to build a new senior and two junior high schools, had adopted a program for the new schools---and a junior high school at Central. (120) The removal of students from Central did not resume until the issue was settled at the end of the 1928-1929 school year. Classes for the deaf, handicapped and part-time were then moved to the building. (Board minutes)

In January 1928, Superintendent Stevenson supported the practice of hiring married women as substitutes. He claimed it was his practice, following board policy, to seek unmarried women first, but that unmarried women were often not available on short notice. Finding substitutes for the high school was especially difficult since it was his policy to only call those qualified in the fields in which they taught. In this case, the only competent substitutes were often married women. It was also true that experienced married substitutes could more quickly get the students into a "working mood." The superintendent stated that he felt when the community realized these facts the board members would be less likely to be criticized. (121)

The Peter Cooper School was closed during the 1930-1931 school year. Voters in 1932 approved a plan to sell the building and place the money in the School House Fund. During the same year the practice of renting textbooks was started at Washington Junior High School. Financial problems returned to the district, and 10 percent of all salaries were withheld for balancing the budget. At the end of the year, 60 percent of the money withheld was repaid to the employees. (Board minutes)

In an effort to balance the budget, salaries were again reduced by 10 percent during the 1933-1934 year with an additional 10 percent coming from salaries exceeding one hundred dollars per month. At the end of the year, 75 percent of the withheld money was repaid. (Board minutes)

In 1935 with dangerous intersections near many public schools, the district and the DUBUQUE POLICE DEPARTMENT decided supervision was needed. With too many corners to be patrolled by police officers, they inaugurated the Safety Patrol system using students. Captains and lieutenants were appointed or elected for each school. Schedules were set up to supervise the corners. At various times during the year, the Dubuque Safety Council which provided badges and belts for the patrol members, sponsored theater parties and with the cooperation of merchants and the police department staged a picnic for the patrol close to the close of the school year. (122) The first safety patrol to be headed by a female student was the only belonging to Lincoln Elementary School. Janice Ahlers, a sixth grade student, served as captain in 1952. Safety patrol continued in the District until around 2008 when the responsibility was given to adults who were paid. (123)

Bus token for school travel-front
Bus token for school travel-back

The 10 percent salary reduction was used again during the 1935-1936 year with 30 percent of the withheld money returned. The teaching contract of Frederick Wilhelm KALTENBACH was not renewed, and the MURALS at Dubuque Senior were completed under the direction of Cyril FERRING, a former student. (Board minutes)

In 1936-1937 practice of withholding 10% of each teacher's salary and then paying back at the end of the year as much as the general budget would permit was ended. The Dubuque Teachers Association asked the District to begin payment of salaries in twelve equal installments. Each paycheck was issued on the first day of the month. (Board minutes)

In 1937 officials of the American Federation of Labor were told by members of the board of education that the organization of teachers into a union was a matter that "rested entirely with the teachers themselves." John J. Brown, A. F. of L. organizer, announced that he would ask Miss Helen Kintzinger, president of the Dubuque Teachers' Association, to call a meeting of the executive committee of the organization to consider the issue. Board members instructed Superintendent Earl C. Cline "to call a meeting of the teachers if the proposal met with the approval of the association's executive committee." (124)

Photo courtesy: Bob Reding
Awards program (1938)Photo courtesy: Bob Reding

In 1937-38 a total of 350 students received night school certificates. To be eligible, a person had to attend at least 32 of the forty sessions and meet the class requirements. Those who attended only one semester class were given semester cards. Classes were held twice a week. Perfect attendance was also recognized. In 1937-38 perfect attendance records were held by thirty-six students. In a newspaper article at the time, it was noted that Frank F. Stoewer held the record with five years of perfect attendance. Following the presentation of certificates of achievement and semester cards, an annual closing party-dance was held in the Dubuque Senior High School gymnasium. (Board minutes)

On September 26, 1938, Dubuque voters approved by a vote of 4,763 to 1,265 to issue bonds for the construction of schools to replace Bryant, Fulton, Lincoln, and Marshal. A resolution was adopted on November 10, 1938, to accept a grant from the federal government to help in the construction of the schools in a sum not to exceed $343,636. Marshall was accepted as completed on January 23, 1940. Bryant was accepted on February 23, 1940. Lincoln was accepted on April 1, 1941, and Fulton was accepted on April 16. (Board minutes)

In 1940 the State Health Department asked local teachers across the state to carefully watch their students for signs of POLIO. These indications would include "signs of indisposition and irritability" along with fever, sore throats, and listlessness. Later indications would include fever, vomiting and stiffness in the neck or back. The department, however, stressed that schools should remain open in those areas where the most cases were being reported. (125)

During 1941 the Board adopted a rule that required all teachers to attend summer school and obtain a minimum of six hours of credit every six years. The federal government requested students in manual training classes to build airplane models to be used in the instruction of airplane spotters. (Board minutes) The quota of 100 model planes from Dubuque was exceeded by 500 leading to letters of praise from the state superintendent of public instruction and the Iowa director of the project. (126)

Hundreds of men and women waited in line to take standardized civil service examinations. Primary interest was finding machinist trainees, machine operators, and metal trade workers for employment at the Rock Island Arsenal. In response, a new machine shop training course was opened at Dubuque Senior High School in June as part of the vocational education department. (127)

In April 1942 the National Education Association announced that four Dubuque educators were being named to several of its committees. Jordan LARSON was named to the committee on "new voter and preparation." This committee was charged with establishing a program of citizenship training in each state under the supervision of the state departments of education. W. Howard Bateson of JEFFERSON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL was named to the committee on tenure, which aided state associations draft tenure laws. Miss Esther Helbig, principal of MARSHALL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL was to serve on the international relations committee and Jesse Marte of WASHINGTON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL was named to the credit union committee. (128)

Pre-aviation classes were offered during the day in the high school. In June 1942 an evening session was added and the summer program was extended. Available to young men 18 to 27 years of age, the program was intended for those interested in becoming pilots, navigators, or bombardiers in the Army or Navy air forces during WORLD WAR II. (129)

Increases in salary from $50 to $150 was granted teachers in the district in April 1942. These, however, were termed "emergency raises" and would be eliminated at the end of the war. In addition to the raises, teachers were granted $25 for each adult child living at home with a maximum of $50 allowed. (130)

To enable more women to enter the workforce during the war, the District began a day nursery at Audubon School for young children during the 1942-1943 academic year. In 1944 a second nursery was opened at Fulton School. (Board minutes)

Public school teachers at Bryant, Franklin, Prescott, Lincoln, Irving, Jackson, Fulton, Marshall and Audubon helped the war effort by serving during a four day period as registrars for new ration booklets. In 1943 following an instruction class for all teachers at CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL, teachers began their duties Thursday afternoon after classes were dismissed at 3:00 p.m. They worked from 3:30 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on Thursday and Friday and then again on Monday and Tuesday. All #3 ration booklets for each family members were brought to the school after being filled out with the name, address age and sex of the person. The registrar marked each booklet in ink indicating that the #4 booklet had been issued. (131)

An epidemic of polio delayed the opening of school for one month in 1943. The same year a School Site Fund was created and funded by all delinquent taxes collected. (Board minutes)

In 1946 the single salary schedule for teachers was adopted. In September the taxpayers of the Oakville School District met to consider consolidation with Dubuque. Pushing the issue was the annexation of the 59.6 acres served by the district by the City of Dubuque in April. This had been pursued by the JOHN DEERE DUBUQUE WORKS which had purchased some land in the area on which to construct one hundred homes. The company wanted sufficiently large school facilities for these families. The homes were located in the area of Broadlawn, Morningview, and Hillcrest. Members of the Dubuque board of education stated previously that the rural school with twenty-six students would probably be maintained for the present time if the consolidation was achieved. (132)

The Iowa Supreme Court in December, 1946 ruled that teachers could belong to both the state and the school district retirement systems. The case had been brought to the court by the Dubuque, Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Sioux City, Clinton, Lyons and Clinton school districts. To improve the benefits provided under its own retirement system, the Dubuque district, like the others, joined the state retirement system in March 1945. (133)

On July 9, 1947, part of the Center Grove School District was annexed. This was followed on October 10 by the Oakville School District. (Board minutes) On September 9, 1947 one of the members of the school board asked Superintendent of Schools Max Clark if any of the textbooks for the new school year might have any Communist leaning. The superintendent assured the board that the textbooks had been checked and none was found. (134)

In 1948 the State of Iowa's Department of Public Instruction established the Iowa Committee on Atomic Energy to develop a curriculum for the study of atomic science. In 1949, prior to the release of IOWA PLAN (THE), district administrators admitted that finding textbooks up-to-date with the rapid development of science was difficult. The standard practice of textbook adoption was for teams of teachers to study possible texts and then submit their choice to a Central Curriculum committee composed of the superintendent and several principals and supervisors. Superintendent Clark stated that most of the material on the United Nations and atomic energy came from newspapers, magazines, brochures and pamphlets purchased for the schools. He singled out "My Weekly Reader" as one source because it was published in several editions to meet the reading needs of children in different grades. (135)

Kindergarten report card begun in 1949.

The start of school in 1949 was again delayed by poliomyelitis. A strike by coal miners left the District with a fuel shortage. Temperatures in the schools were lowered, and all after-school and evening activities were cancelled. (Board minutes)

Classes were first held in a log cabin surrounded by oak trees in 1833. This building served the students of Oakville, just west of Dubuque, from 1850-1950 when it joined the Dubuque schools.

Photo courtesy: Telegraph Herald]]Construction contracts for the erection of a new Irving Elementary School were awarded in 1952. The building was dedicated on October 28, 1953, and WESTMINSTER PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH purchased the site of the old Irving School. (Board minutes)

Health concerns revolved around flies and rats during the 1950s. To aid the Junior Chamber of Commerce sponsored rat-control campaign, DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL students contributed bait boxes made in woodworking class. (136)

On October 14th, 1953 Dubuque's "pilot program of released-time religious education for public school students began. All third and fourth grade students at PRESCOTT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL were released to the Dubuque Council of Churches. The 54 Protestant students attended ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH for religious instruction. Plans for the eleven Catholic students were not immediately announced. If the program proved successful, two more school would be added in the spring semester and two more in the fall. (137)

By 1955 the program involved third, fourth, and fifth grade students in the nine public elementary schools. It had been decided that Catholic students would go to their own parish schools. The Council of Churches classes included an estimated 90% of the children of the three grades with more than 70 children receiving instruction in 40 weekly class periods.

Providing space for the instruction of public school students was a mobile class trailer--a fully-equipped classroom on wheels that was parked adjacent to the various schools. The trail was 36 feet 6 inches log with a heighth of 6 feet 6 inches. It held thirty students, desks and chairs, visual aids equipment and all the book needed. Every school used the trailer except for Prescott which continued to send its students to St. John Lutheran.

The schedule of classes in the trailer was as follows:

Monday---Irving School---seven classes of third, fourth, and fifth graders dismissed during the day

Tuesday---Fulton School---six classes in the morning/Jackson School---two classes in the afternoon

Wednesday---Marshall School---three classes in the morning/Audubon---three classes in the afternoo

Thursday---Lincoln School---six classes in the morning/Prescott School---four classes in the afternoon

Friday---Franklin School--two classes in the morning/Bryant School---three classes in the afternoon

The released time program was financed by an assessment on the churches belonging to the Dubuque Council of Churches. The mobile classroom, a memorial gift by Fred Hoerner, was still used in 1959. (138)

Across the United States, there were 3,000 communities using released time Christian instruction. Dubuque was the first major Iowa city to use it following an attorney general opinion of August 18, 1953. (139)

SCHOOL CONSOLIDATION had been occurring in Iowa for decades, but the pace increased in the 1950s affecting RURAL SCHOOLS. In 1953 the "community school district" became the unit of public education in Iowa. (140) The merger of the Independent School District of Dubuque and the Independent School District of Center Grove was approved effective July 1, 1956. On December 10, 1956, the Board passed a resolution changing the name of the District from the Independent School District of Dubuque to the Dubuque Community School District. Merger with the Asbury Independent School District was approved effective July 1, 1957. (Board minutes)

Audubon School opened a classroom on a half-time basis in the fall of 1954 for the teaching of the mentally handicapped. Eight students ranging in age from five to ten worked on such tasks as sitting still, taking simple directions, and differentiating between colors. Parents reported the children talked more at home and were better behaved. This class, the goal of the Dubuque County Association for Mentally Retarded Children, was the first of its kind in the state organized by the association and the public schools. Money for schools, workshops and clinical and diagnostic center was gathered through a Milkman's Drive. (141)

In September 1954 an estimated 250 teachers from the city and county attended the annual Business-Industry and Education Day sponsored by the Dubuque Chamber of Commerce. Speakers included the state director of civil defense, president of the chamber of commerce, the superintendent of the Dubuque public schools, and Dr. Gaylord M. COUCHMAN. (142)

In March 1955 Dubuque Senior High School and Bryant Elementary School were named as centers for the inoculation of first and second grade pupils with the Salk Polio Vaccine. Senior would host 700 children while Bryant would potentially see 525 vaccinations. Each student participating had to have a signed permission slip from parents. Initial shots would be given on a designated day to be followed by another shot one week later on the same day of the week. A final shot would follow four weeks later. Children who missed appointments would need to visit their family physician for the vaccine which would be commercially available "in the near future." (143)

Dubuque educators in 1955 received a 6% increase in salary. A major change was the equalization of salaries for men and women. Under the previous system, married men received an extra $300 and an additional $100 for up to two children. Starting in the fall, men teachers received additional salary only for assigned duties. The salary plan placed Dubuque fifth among the largest school systems in Iowa. (144)

In 1957 county public school reorganization was of primary interest in the Iowa Legislature. According to Iowa law by July 1, 1962 all public school districts had to be a part of a public school district that maintained twelve grades. If any area was not in a high school district by that date, it would be assigned to one. (145) In that year, Dubuque County had sixty-two districts, but twenty-seven of them existed only on paper. Besides DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, the only other four-year public high schools in the county were in Peosta and Epworth. Parochial schools and their enrollments were not part of the reorganization plans. In 1957 three reorganization plans were possible: have all areas join the Dubuque Community School District, split the county so that Dubuque Senior High and some high school in the western part of the county would serve a district, or allow the outlying Dubuque County districts to join school districts outside the county. (146)

In 1957 new teaching methods centered around the concept of "wholeness." In mathematics, for example, this meant relating the curriculum to real life experiences. This lessened the rote memorization that had been practiced previously. (147)

In 1957 Dubuque was part of a test of the civil defense system when hypothetical atomic bombs landed on several large Iowa cities during Operation Alert. Dubuque was not "hit" which was fortunate because the city did not have a Civil Defense director or a working disaster plan. In Operation Alert, Iowa Civil Defense headquarters in Des Moines received a call that enemy planes were sighted over Alaska. State headquarters phoned other cities in the state. At 11:15 a.m. education stopped as sirens began blasting away and remained going for ten minutes. It was learned that Dubuque was not "hit," when City Manager Laverne Schiltz opened a letter at 1:00 p.m. which told him of "Dubuque's fate." If there had been an attack, Dubuque would have then been asked to assume a support role. (148)

In 1959 Washington Junior High School, later WASHINGTON MIDDLE SCHOOL was slated for an addition. Designed for five hundred students, the building was currently serving 650. In 1962, an estimated 270 additional students would be added to the enrollment under terms of the state-ordered school district reorganization. To remedy the situation, a twelve-classroom addition, reconstruction of the present facilities, and other improvements were planned. (149)

The Telegraph Herald in 1959 began offering local and area public and parochial schools the VEC Weekly News filmstrip. World and national events happening as late as Friday of the preceding week could appear in the filmstrips that were received in participating schools the next Monday. In addition to the thirty-five weeks of filmstrips and other materials covering news, the Telegraph Herald also provided each participating school with ten study filmstrips each covering one subject in depth. In 1959 these topics included "Algeria Today," the "U. S. Congress," and "What is a Watershed?" Each Monday the newspaper published a related News Quiz covering the same information as the filmstrip. (150)

In 1960 the Secondary School Administrative Council announced the first code of student dress for students of the two junior high schools and Dubuque Senior High School. The code was adopted in the belief that "girls and boys should be well-attired, that good appearance stimulates good behavior, and that proper clothes encourage self-confidence." Superintendent Max Clark said that individual schools had jurisdiction over any exceptional dress patterns thought "not in accordance with good taste." It was not stated what disciplinary action would be taken, "but it was assumed "deviation from the code would result in expulsion of a similar form of punishment." (151)

            1. Jeans and "levis" are prohibited. Slacks, wash pants, or
               other suitable trousers of waist height are acceptable.
               Regular or self-contained belts must be worn.
            2. T-shirts are not considered as an approved outer garment.
               Shirts must be buttoned and worn inside trousers. Collars
               should be turned down.
            3. Boots are prohibited, as are steel cleats.
            4. Extreme hair styles which attract undue attention are not
            1. Slacks or shorts are prohibited.
            2. Extremely tight or short skirts are prohibited. Low neck-
               lines and tight sweaters are considered in poor taste.
            3. Pin curls are not to be worn

In 1961 the issue of whether the areas outside of Dubuque and the newly created Western Dubuque School District would be merged with the Dubuque Community School District was still being debated. Superintendent Max Clark estimated that if this were to happen, the tax base would be increased by $17 million to a figure of $95 million. County Superintendent Cletus Koppen expressed the opinion that the law forcing reorganization might lack the power to accomplish the fact. Voluntary reorganization by election would then be the answer. (152)

Mergers with other districts, however, were occurring frequently. The District merged with the Stone Hill School District during the 1958-1959 academic year. The following year, the Dubuque district merged with the Rural Independent School District of Julien. The actual merger occurred July 1, 1960. Dubuque agreed to merge with the Derby Grange Rural Independent School District (effective July 1, 1961). (153) However, Dubuque denied the merger application of the Wilton Rural Independent School District, preferring to merge with only one district annually. In 1961 a petition to merge with the Table Mound Township School District was received. This was completed in 1962. Wilton Rural Independent School District merged with Dubuque on July 8, 1963. During the 1963-1964 school year the board set aside its limitation on mergers as five rural school districts (Salem Rural Independent, Washington Township, St. Joseph Rural Independent, Mosalem Township and Center Township) joined Dubuque. (Board minutes)

In 1962 the board approved a total net salary increase of $42,000 for 248 teachers and staff members. A new salary schedule had three groups each having 15 steps based on experience. Group I included teachers with a B.A. degree and two years of experience. Their salaries ranged from $4,600 to $6.700. This included the largest number of employees with 163 out of the 248 salaries teachers and staff members. Group II was for those with an M. A. degree including many principals and supervisors. There were 55 people listed with a salary range from $5,000 to $7,300. Group III had four people listed with an M. A. degree and 30 graduate hours. These people had a salary range from $5,400 to $7,900. There were also eighteen "cadet" teachers who had six to seven semesters of college credit or their B.A. degree but less than two years of experience. Their salary was raised from $4,400 to $4,500. There were eight teachers on the retired list. Along with the new salary schedule, several measures were approved including: (154)

            1. No new teacher would be hired with less than a college degree
               and two years of experience unless there was a shortage.
            2. In order to qualify for and maintain position in each salary
               group, a teacher had to earn six semester hours of approved
               college credit within six years preceding a new contract.
            3. Teachers were retired automatically at the end of school year
               in which they reached their 65th birthday.

Crowding of classrooms by 1963 led to the leasing of two mobile classrooms for seven years at DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL. Prior to a recent Iowa attorney generals ruling, districts had been told they could only enter into one year leases. According to Superintent Max Clark there were no plans to lease any more space. Viewed as only a temporary solution, voters were to be receiving a bond referendum in November, 1963 for needed facilities at Table Mound, Senior High, Washington Junior High, and a new elementary school to relieve crowding at Irving. In years to come, leasing space returned to the district with mobile classrooms added to Irving, Hoover, and STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD HIGH SCHOOL.

In a testimonial to Wilbur DALZELL for his forty-three years of distinguished service to the District, the Board passed a resolution during the 1964-1965 academic year to name the athletic field at Senior High in his honor. (Board minutes)

In March 1965 a $6.5 million bond issue was passed for the construction of a new high school and elementary schools in Sageville and Table Mound. The bond issue was believed to be the largest ever passed in Dubuque up to that time and the second largest ever passed in Iowa. (155)

Dr. Garlyn Wessels succeeded Max CLARK as superintendent of schools in 1966 at an annual salary of $16,000. Dr. Clark had been informed that his contract with the district as superintendent would not be renewed. He was offered the post of administrative consultant with responsibilities in the areas of building programs, financing and federal programs. (156) Dr. Howard PIGG was introduced as the new assistant superintendent. To comply with state law that all areas of the state be part of a K-12 school district, the County Board of Education announced that the following were attached to the Dubuque Community School District effective July 1, 1966: Bloody Run, Jefferson, St. Josephs, Knollville, Riverside, Sageville, Sherrill, Vernon and Washington Mills. In addition the merger of Prairie Springs and St. Donatus with the District was approved. (Board minutes)

In 1966 Horace Hoover, personnel director of the District stated that the 1966-67 starting salary for a teacher with no previous experience ($5,000) was "about average" in the state. At the time Des Moines was paying $5,300, Waterloo-$5,300, and Iowa City $5,000. In 1965-66 the board of education decided on a three-year plan to increase teacher salaries. Although the $5,000 starting salary would remain the same, the scheduled increases would become larger until they reached the "goal schedule" in 1968-69. Dubuque also used tuition reimbursement allowing up to $150 for teachers to use in graduate study. (157) New teachers had a week-long workshop beginning on Monday with an informal coffee, an orientation by the superintendent, a trip to their buildings to meet with their principals, and then a two hour bus-tour of the city. On Tuesday, dinner was served at the Dubuque Senior High School cafeteria with dessert in the home of a member of the present staff.

Photo courtesy: Bob Reding

Bi-monthly meetings of the board of education began as a suggestion of the superintendent in 1967. The first meeting was designated as a business meeting while the second would deal with matters of educational programs. A Continuation School for expectant school-age girls was approved to be held on the third floor of Central School. The contract for the construction of STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD HIGH SCHOOL was awarded. HUMKE SCHOOL, now displayed at the HAM HOUSE, from Center Township was donated to the DUBUQUE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Board minutes)

A county school tax equalization law by the Iowa Legislature in 1967 created a $400,000 "gift" to the Dubuque district. The law was designed to shift part of the school tax burden from a county's less wealthy districts to the more wealthy districts. In Dubuque County, the Western Dubuque District appeared to be more wealthy than the Dubuque district because it had a greater assessed valuation per pupil. In 1970 the Western Dubuque district had a valuation of $47 million with 2,512 students creating an assessed valuation per pupil of approximately $18,800. In Dubuque the valuation was $124 million with nearly 11,500 students for an assessed valuation per pupil of $10,800. Western Dubuque received $407,000 less than the tax money collected, while Dubuque received $407,000 more than it collected. (158)

When the county income tax was distributed to the two districts the equalization factor worked in reverse. The Dubuque district received $42,000 less than it collected and Western Dubuque received $42,000 more. (159)

In 1967 the board of education asked the community to approve bond issues for the construction of two new elementary schools. Unlike other buildings, these were designed on a cluster concept with classrooms positioned around a learning center. Using this design, each building would have 14% less corridor space than KENNEDY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. In addition, movable partitions between rooms would allow for flexibility of room use and doorways would exit to the playground giving the maximum of fire-escape potential. (160) The bond issue was passed and construction on Hoover and Eisenhower schools soon began.

Dubuque Senior High School was renamed for three weeks during 1967. On September 18th the board announced that the new high school would be named STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD HIGH SCHOOL after Iowa's second governor, Stephen HEMPSTEAD. At the same meeting, Senior's 44-year old name was changed to Julien Dubuque High School. Students were not pleased. On September 25th an estimated two hundred walked out of class in protest. Some marched to the administration building at 1500 Locust. Others staged a sit-in in front of CLARKE COLLEGE while some walked to WAHLERT CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL where they were turned away by six police officers. At the next board meeting on October 9th a petition against the name change signed by 4,797 people was presented. The board gave the change of name a two-year reconsideration and it was never brought up again. (161) A new adult high school completion program was started and a pilot program was adopted by which elementary students could proceed at their own pace through nine grade levels instead of grades 1-3. (162)

In 1968 the Dubuque Human Relations Commission suggested that the District pursue the active recruitment and hiring of minority group teachers by soliciting job applications and giving "favorable" consideration to minorities. Superintendent Wessel reported that teacher recruiters had recently completed interviews on fifty college campuses in seven states and had not had one minority group person ask to be interviewed. The board stated that the superintendent and director of personnel would meet with the commission to finalize plans for recruitment. (163) HOOVER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL was dedicated on Sunday, November 17, 1968. EISENHOWER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL was dedicated on November 24, 1968. During the 1968-1969 school year a "Stay in School" eight-week summer program designed to prevent students from becoming dropouts was approved by the Board. It was announced that Hempstead High School would not be ready for students by September 2, 1969, necessitating double sessions of classes at Dubuque Senior High School. Three sections of Hempstead were ready for use following Christmas vacation in 1969. The Board declared that January 26, 1970, the start of the second semester, would be the date of the move. (Board minutes)


The superintendent reported during the 1969-1970 year a need for 289 elementary classrooms. Only 271 were then available. The Board approved the purchase of portable classrooms and remodeling to Fulton, Lincoln and KENNEDY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. A state of emergency was declared by the County Superintendent making repairs possible without advertising for bids. The Board authorized a two-year lease with the SISTERS OF THE VISITATION OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY (SVM) for the use of the ACADEMY OF THE VISITATION (THE). The building, used by shared-time students from Holy Ghost School, Saint Anthony School, and Nativity School was considered an annex of Washington Junior High School. The District purchased twenty-three acres of ground at Kaufmann Avenue and Chaney from the ARCHDIOCESE OF DUBUQUE for $75,000. Part of this site, once considered for a new junior high school, was later used for the administrative offices of the district. (Board minutes)

In 1970 the District became the third school district in its size category throughout a 10-state mid-western area to adopt a system of performance pay for school administrative personnel. The pay system would apply to an estimated thirty-seven administrators. The new pay system included five pay criteria--education, experience, responsibility of position, length of contract and performance appraisal. The average 1970-71 salary for the thirty-seven building administrators to be rated under the evaluation system was $15,245. The same year the board approved a teacher salary package of a $6,875 base salary, a $3,000 district-maintained term life insurance policy and a partial payment of the individual teacher's family health insurance. (Board minutes)

In March 1970 Dr. Wessel gave a speech entitled "We'll Manage Somehow" to the Dubuque Management Club. The unusual title alluded to the 105% growth rate the District had experienced in the last decade. He explained that the growth rate was far larger than any other district in Iowa with the exception of Western Dubuque. Since 1964, the number of buildings had grown from 13 to 20, the number of students served lunches from 1,200 to 7,000, and the number of buses from 12 transporting 600 students to 72 carrying 7,000. The pupil growth rate was largely due to students transferring from parochial schools in the city to the public schools. From 1967 to 1970, a total of 2,372 students had made this relocation. The original district included only the City of Dubuque in 11 square miles. Due to district reorganization in the early part of the 1960s, this area had grown to 245 square miles. (164)

By July, however, it was apparent that the District's enrollment surge had become a "significant decline." Compared to the 1968 census, the District had witnessed a seven percent decline in the number of students under twenty-one years of age. Blamed for the decline was the state-wide decrease in birth rates since 1960. (165)

During most of fiscal 1970, the district operated "in the red." When the financial books were closed on June 20th, the district was $2.9 million in debt. Interest payments during the year were $48,186--about 61% higher than the $30,000 budgeted for the category. School district revenue caught up with expenditures and the district operated "in the black" for only a short period in the fall. This did not mean the district was over-expending its budget. The Dubuque district expended only about 94% of the total amount budget for 1969-1970 leaving an unspent balance of $560,039.

Dubuque, like other districts, was forced to borrow money because under Iowa law property taxes to fund new budgets were not collected for at least half a year after districts began spending funds out of new budgets. School districts adopted budgets in July at the beginning of a fiscal year and began spending allotted funds. Property taxes levied to cover these budgets were not due until April 1 of the next calendar year and then only half of the money was collected. Property taxes for the previous three years had been collected late making the situation worse. (166)

The Dubuque Council of Churches in December, 1965 avoided a great increase in its budget for 1966 by not spending $3,240 budgeted in 1965 for a third trailer to use in 1966. (167) In July, 1969 the released time Christian education program of the Dubuque Council of Church was renewed for another year. The council, however, went on record as "opposing the presentation of religious speakers to captive audiences in public schools" in consideration of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The released time program was also to undergo a close evaluation given its rising costs and other activities desired by the council. The program was then using an estimated 80% of the council's $14,000 budget. (168)

In 1970 the Dubuque school board moved to solve this situation by establishing for the first time a $400,000 cash reserve in the 1970-71 budget. In addition, the board directed Superintendent Wessel to under-spend the total budget by at least $100,000 and add that money to the reserve fund. (169)

In July 1970, Earl MARIHART retired from the district after serving as the director of Adult Education since 1950. During his tenure, Marihart supervised the formation of a high school completion program allowing adults who had never finished high school to receive an equivalent diploma. With the cooperation of the local hospitals, the Dubuque School of Practical Nursing had been established. He also helped establish of apprenticeship and trades training programs and expanded drivers' education courses to include "defensive driving" techniques and a driver education program in cooperation with the Dubuque Municipal Court. (170)

Beginning in 1971 the Dubuque REALTORS Building and Vocational Training Association worked with the District staff, high school instructors and students on the Student Built House Project. The program ran until 1984, was put on hold for six years, and then restarted in 1993 and ran until 2009. During those twenty-nine years, hundreds of students from Senior and Hempstead along with WAHLERT CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL participated in the program which annually constructed an entire home including all aspects of construction, interior design and decorating. Proceeds from the sale of the homes were given to students who applied for scholarships. Over $135,000 in scholarships were awarded. (171)

The 1970s were beginning of outdoor education in the District. Encouraged by Dean Halverson, the district science coordinator, teachers attended workshops and brought ideas back to Dubuque for implementation. An outdoor learning center was piloted at Hoover Elementary. Classes of sixth graders were encouraged to take up to three-day field trips to camps like Little Cloud, Camp Courageous, Camp Ewalu, or Camp Wyoming and as far away as Minnesota for courses in canoeing, plant identification, and outdoor activities. Some classes experienced one-day canoe trips on the Little Maquoketa River near Monticello. These programs gradually withered out by 2013 due to the cost of transportation. (172)

Talented and gifted education may be said to have started with a Phi Delta Kappa grant to Hoover Elementary to establish a library of books for teacher in-service in educating the talented and gifted. Administrators and teachers traveled at least twice to Des Moines to hear expert Dr. Irving Sato speak about the areas of giftedness. A parent group called the Parents and Friends of the Talented and Gifted was quickly formed. The hiring of the first talented and gifted coordinator, Mrs. Ruth Ellis, led briefly to a program where identified students from each elementary building met together once a week at Irving. This program was ended after one year; talented and gifted education became part of the responsibility of the learning center teacher at each school. (173)

During the 1980s the District saw the implementation of collective bargaining. The DUBUQUE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, an affiliate of the Iowa State Education Association and the National Education Association was chosen as the bargaining agent for the teachers. Grievances followed a procedure of settlement that could include binding arbitration. Settling the issue of pay often resulted in the District and Association taking their case to first a mediator, then fact finder, and then if no agreement was reached to an arbitrator. (174)

The Instructional and Professional Development (IPD) Committee of the DEA often found areas in which the district and teachers' association could work together. The district utilized the Mobile In-service Teaching Laboratory of the Iowa State Education Association to provide in-service programs for local teachers. Influenced by highly publicized kidnappings in Des Moines, both groups in 1982 sponsored a child finger-print identification program to parents. "Good News" notes, designed by the DEA and printed by the district, were offered beginning in 1982 to all schools to inform parents of high quality student work. The DEA also wrote and the district printed weekend trip suggestions for parents. The last parent-teacher conference was used to hand out mutually prepared suggested reading lists to match social studies topics for the following year in elementary school. The district, DEA, and local educational support groups like Parents and Friends of the Talented and Gifted even worked out legislative goals. (175)

In 1984 the board of education turned its attention to policies concerning fund-raising in the schools. Superintendent Howard Pigg stated that new guidelines would require the parents of students in the lower grades to first give permission before promotional materials about a sale were given to the student. Parents were also concerned about the safety of their children as they pursued sales. (176) Pay for substitute teachers was also a concern. Substitute teachers had to be certified and were expected to perform many of the same duties as regular classroom teachers, but their pay rates did not reflect those expectations. Substitutes in Dubuque received the lowest pay of all substitutes in the eleven largest districts in Iowa and were required to quit after ten days of continuous service on one job. This policy was rescinded and substitutes were allowed to continue teaching with placement on the regular teacher pay scale after ten days. (177)

Perhaps the greatest innovation for education in Iowa came through the Phase III Program enacted by the 1987 Iowa Legislature and championed by Governor Terry Branstad. One part of the program encouraged teachers to submit project ideas to a committee of administrators and teachers. If approved, these projects enabled the teacher(s) to earn additional money. Administrators and teachers also worked together on plans to improve evaluation of teachers in the classroom. (178)

The District in 1988 named the gymnasium at Dubuque Senior High School the Nora Gym in honor of James NORA. The District was also seen as a leader in the removal of asbestos. The "In Touch" newsletter was begun and an AIDS curriculum was approved. After much discussion, ceiling fans were approved for schools. This was an important improvement since many of the elementary schools had been constructed for air-conditioning which had never been installed. In 1989 a multi-cultural curriculum plan was adopted. A consultant for the program began work the following year.

During 1990 the combination of Eisenhower Elementary School with Keller School was accomplished with the name of the school remaining Eisenhower. The District's commitment to special education included working with students from HILLS & DALES CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER, AREA RESIDENTIAL CARE, INC., and counties in the State of Iowa.

In 1990 Iowa ranked 48th in the nation in offering advanced courses to talented and gifted students to help them get a head start on college. "Dubuque Schools Among Few to Offer Advanced Classes," in the Telegraph Herald of January 31, 1990, however, indicated that the Dubuque public school district was among the 2.8 percent of Iowa districts which offered advanced placement courses to high school students. Advanced classes were offered in math, English and U. S history. U. S. history was open to juniors and seniors while the other two courses were open primarily to seniors. Between 75 to 100 students at Hempstead and Senior participated in these classes annually. Students could also take lasses for credit at any of the three local colleges. They coyld also take honors and other advanced courses to prepare them for CLEP exams, another way of testing for college credit.

Irving and Fulton elementary schools piloted all-day, everyday kindergarten in 1990-1991 with the students in each class chosen by lottery. (179)

The district did not miss the impact of the "We Want to Change" report concerning integration in the community. See: DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

For the first time in its history, the district in 1991 chose to present information to the annual meeting of the Iowa Association of School Boards. Of the six workshops proposed by the district, the IASB chose two--strategic planning (how the district developed a comprehensive five-year plan) and globally oriented programs. (180)

Except for two Asian and two Hispanic teachers, the district had no minority employees in 1989-1990. In October, 1990 an affirmative action plan was adopted. A proposed goal of hiring women and minorities to fill four administrative and management positions by 1992, however, was called unrealistic. The time table was delayed to 1993. The affirmative action plan also called for efforts to hire qualified women, racial minorities and disabled people for other school positions. Katie Mulholland, the district's staff development coordinator, stated that the goals of the plan represented a standard the district should try to attain and was not a hiring quota.

Iowa Department of Education personnel annually visited thirty-two schools in Iowa to evaluate determine compliance with the state's multi-cultural guidelines. In 1991 during their visit to Dubuque, the team found problems similar to other districts in Iowa. Students with disabilities were not sufficiently integrated into the schools. Some classes tended to be dominated by students of one sex--females in office education and males in computer classes. Minorities were under-represented in vocational programs and advanced classes. (181)

Another aspect of the all-day, everyday kindergarten program piloted in 1990 was begun in 1991. The Tri-College Consortium of Loras, Clarke, and the University of Dubuque offered the master's degree in early childhood education. In a pilot program within a pilot program, the district created an "early childhood intern" program for a certified teacher in Dubuque. Diane Muir, the only participant, took a paid sabbatical from her regular teaching duties to assist in an all-day, everyday kindergarten class. She also took evening and summer classes to be able to earn her master's degree in fifteen months. (182)

Beginning in the 1991-1992 school year, each elementary school was expected to have a chorus for fifth and sixth graders. Voluntary participation would involve an hour per week before school or at lunch time. Those in the chorus would receive a grade separate from their grade for the required music class. (183)

In 1991 Dr. Jerome Greer was hired as the first black school administrator in the history of the District. The night he was introduced to the board of Education there was a cross-burning near the school district office. (184) Greer served as the principal of IRVING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL where another cross-burning took place within view of the school. Dr. Greer left the city in 1994 to become the director of human resources in Peoria, Illinois.

Prescott Elementary School became the pilot school in 1991 for testing a program of offering a cold breakfast to students. A full breakfast--cereal or bread, milk and juice--cost seventy five cents. Those qualifying for reduced priced lunches paid thirty cents. It was estimated that 80% of the Prescott student population qualified for free or reduced lunches. These students paid nothing. (185) The program proved successful and spread to the other schools.


The familiar slashed circle indicating something unacceptable began appearing in Dubuque schools in 1991. This symbol was used on posters designating each school a "Discrimination Free Zone." A poster, placed in each classroom, also informed anyone suffering discrimination who to inform. Forms for reporting violations were available in every principal's office. (186)

In the 1990s the District developed its own multicultural and non-sexist plan administered by Thomas DETERMAN. In-service programs were held for staff members and curriculum adoptions were made after materials were examined for bias. After Determan's retirement, in-services were continued; staff development was brought to the buildings annually by Dr. Kris Hall.

In January 1992 the board of education was presented with four of over 1000 projects carried out over five years by district teachers using Phase III professional development funding. When passed in 1987, the Educational Excellence Program's Phase I raised minimum teacher salaries to $18,000. Phase II was used to supplement teacher salaries. (187)

Junior high principals were in a position to receive free television sets, satellite dishes and other electronic devices in 1992. All that was required was that students were allowed to watch Channel One, a daily current events program produced by Whittle Education Network of Nashville, Tennessee. Opportunities were quickly seen for using the equipment for teacher in-service, non-commercial educational programming, and an in-school television system. (188)

With the upcoming retirement of Dr. Howard Pigg, a survey was made of 442 school district employees, 60 students, and 37 district residents of behaviors most wanted shown by a new superintendent. Identifying key issues and inspire confidence were the two most frequently listed attributes, while cultural sensitivity as a professional and personal quality was one of the three items listed as least important. (189)

The board of education on April 13, 1992 approved student conduct rules forbidding "inappropriate or unwelcome language or behavior race." Sexual slurs, threats, proposals, and unwanted touching were also prohibited.

For the first time in seven years, the elementary report card was changed. Beginning in 1991 a number code would report a student's progress. Students in early grades would be given an "I" for commendable work, a "2" for steady progress, and a "3" for more work needed. Previously, students had been graded with a plus, check, or zero. Beginning in fifth grade, some letter grades would be given. (190)

Attempts to recruit minority teachers to Dubuque public schools brought the district together with the private colleges in 1992 in the Minority teacher Corps program. Through this cooperative project, and black, Asian, Hispanic, or Native American teacher in the district could apply to earn a free master's degree from the Dubuque Tri-College Department of Education. Half of the cost of the degree would be waived once they were given a graduate assistantship at one of the three colleges. The other half of the tuition would be paid through the district's Phase III professional development program. The student could only apply for this reimbursement if their graduate program related to teaching. The teacher would take most of the course work during the summer and complete the degree in three years. (191)

In July 1992, Diana LAM, Dubuque's first female superintendent whose ethnic background included Hispanic and Asian, was hired as the superintendent upon the retirement of Dr. Howard Pigg. Lam established a number of initiatives including EXPEDITIONARY LEARNING, an emphasis on "higher level thinking" and "authentic evaluation" rather than traditional testing. Her innovation also included the idea of designing an alternative high school program for 9th graders which would start as a school within one or both of Dubuque's traditional high schools but could lead to a new alternative high school in the community. The plan called for a smaller high school setting teaming teachers without being held to a rigid schedule. The idea resulted in Dubuque being awarded $22,000 in the first-ever competition sponsored by the New Iowa School Development Corporation. Based in Des Moines and funded by the Iowa Legislature, the organization hoped to transform Iowa's schools by funding innovative programs which could be examples for others to follow. (192)

Innovation outside of expeditionary learning was approved by the board of education in March, 1993. By a vote of 5-2, the board approved an alliance of Fulton and Prescott schools. Prescott would be responsible for the schools' preschoolers through second-grade. Fulton would handle the schools' third through sixth graders. On a 7-0 vote the board said that Audubon could proceed with a proposal to offer both a traditional school calendar and a year-round option for those who wanted it. (193)

In 1993 the New Iowa Schools Development Corporation announced a second award of funding for school restructuring. Dubuque received a grant of $59,182. Plans called for nearly $44,000 to be used to support the new school within a school at Dubuque Senior High. (194) Amid controversy about her curriculum changes, the board of education voted 4-3 to renew Lam's contract for another two years. Shortly afterwards, Lam accepted an offer to be the superintendent of schools in San Antonio, Texas. (195)

Costing nearly $3,000, black boxes were installed in district school buses in 1993. Located near the front of the bus overlooking the aisle, the boxes might, or might not, contain a camera to record student behavior. District administrators found the cameras valuable reinforcement when confronting students and supportive parents about misbehavior during the trip to school or returning home. (196)

The district upgraded its computer technology in June of 1993 when the board approved spending as much as $725,000 on computer technology including a new central computer. The current computer was eleven years old and could not handle payroll or record keeping. It was only capable of handling 70 users and was only linked to the junior high and high schools. The new computer could handle 200 users and was linked to every school in the district. (197)

Marriott Corporation delivered a big check to the district in July, 1993. To obtain the contract to handle the district's food service, it had promised a return of $118,500 the first year. This was the amount of the check although it meant the company did not make a profit. Company officials said that the contract with the district would be renegotiated each of the following four years of the five year contract. Records kept by the company indicated that food service revenue had increased buy 9% daily, total participation increased 9.5% daily, the breakfast program increased by 12% per daily and labor costs were reduced by 1.7 % daily. (198)

The Dubuque Chamber of Commerce Corporate Challenge Grant had its first impact on the education of students in 1993. The $85,775 raised funded a first round of grants for technology purchases for schools in East Dubuque, Illinois; Western Dubuque; and Dubuque public and parochial schools that applied. There were sixty-three grant applications. A grant committee reviewed the requests and made awards based on merit. (199)

Working with the UNIVERSITY OF DUBUQUE, the district announced "Seeking New Adventures," a Saturday program for students in grades 4-6 who attended public school or were home-schooled. Organizers hoped to offer twenty-five classes taught by public school teachers or community members. They were to begin in January 1994 and last for five weeks from 9:00 a.m. until noon. While open to all students in the district, the program was specifically to help students in the downtown schools. (200)

In 1993 the District formed a Gang Task Force with Don Moody, principal of STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD HIGH SCHOOL, as its chairperson. The purpose of the group was to address gang activity in schools and ensure that the district's discipline policy included gang activity, assault, and repetitive fighting. (201) In 1994 in commemoration of the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther, the school district closed its schools.

Dr. Marvin O'HARE succeeded Lam as superintendent. O’Hare moved to Dubuque in 1970 to serve as the first Director of Elementary Education and then assistant superintendent. He was a strong advocate of early childhood education. O'Hare was succeeded as superintendent by Dr. Joel MORRIS.

In June 1997 district officials proposed that a new elementary school be constructed on district property to the east of Valentine Drive. Construction of this and the middle school that a committee of teachers, parents, and administrators had suggested would not be covered by the schoolhouse levy. (202) Because of this, a bond issue was placed before the voters.

The plan to construct the elementary building at this site was dropped after a bond issue was rejected on September 9, 1997. On October 13, 1997 the district signed an agreement with the city allowing for the construction of VALENTINE PARK on the land. The city paid the district $500,000. The agreement stated that in the future if a school were reconsidered, the district would repay the money. The city reserved the potential site of a school as a grassy area. (203)

In the same month, the district followed new state laws and adopted new policies concerning the search of students' desks and lockers. Previously, the district had to give the student 24 hours of warning before a search. In 1997 student desks, lockers and other district-owned spaces were considered to be provided as a courtesy and not private. Such sites could be searched without warning. (204)

After five years of having the Marriott Corporation manage the district's food service, school officials in 1997 decided to take back the business. The decision affected an estimated 1.3 million meals served annually. At the time of the announcement, officials said one of the goals was to increase satisfaction with the fish nuggets, cheeseburgers, and mini corn-dogs served to students. Another goal was to keep more money in the city. In the previous year, the Marriott Corporation charged the district a 5.9 cents fee per meal totaling $73,160. The district expected to save $60,000 having its own food manager, a cost that had also been charged by Marriott. (205)

Eddie Moore, Jr., an African American holding a master's degree from LORAS COLLEGE and working on his doctorate from the University of Iowa, was hired by the district to discuss racial issues with students and teachers. As part of the district's program against harassment, each classroom was given a poster describing the rules and expressing the policy that discrimination and harassment would not be tolerated. Part of the explaining to the community was the task of Mike Connolly, a teacher in the district and elected state senator, who served as the district's public relations coordinator.

Concern that elementary students were scoring below to just above the state average in reading and language arts, the district turned to the students "first teachers"--the parents. At parent-teacher conferences for students in kindergarten through fourth grade, parents were given brochures telling how they could help their children become better readers. (206)

In 1997 committees of teachers, administrators, and community members began writing standards for what students should learn in a particular subject. Between March and November, the committees would study the district's curricula as well as school standards written by states and other districts. A first draft was to be written and then critiqued by principals, school councils and faculty groups. Based on remarks, a second draft would be written and presented to the teachers. Once teachers' comments were considered, a final draft would be developed. (207)

The district's strategic plan which had been written in 1991 was "taken off the shelf" according to the Telegraph Herald and opened for examination in 1997 through community involvement. Surveys were to be sent to random households for input. A group of "key community informants" would be identified and invited to a meeting to talk about the district. The public would be invite to one or two "town meetings" and a Strategic Planning Committee to board members, administrators, teachers, and community members would be established. The committee would evaluate the input from the other sources and recommend a new strategic plan. (208) In April, district officials announced that it could take $8 million and five years to computerize the public schools. A plan including the choice of platform (IBM), computers in every classroom, network connections between classrooms and buildings, and years of teacher training was expected to be ready to show the school board in May, 1997. (209)

In August 1997 the district announced the use of a computer lunch account for students in the elementary schools. Developed by district employees, the system was designed to reduce office paperwork and eliminate the need of teachers to keep track of lunch tickets. (210) The program was later eliminated.

Good news about computer acquisition was announced for several schools in October, 1997. The Iowa Department of Education informed CENTRAL ALTERNATIVE HIGH SCHOOL, Lincoln Elementary School and Fulton Elementary School that they were winners of 1997 Technology Literacy Challenge Grants. To be eligible, each school had to have at least 40% of their students eligible for free and reduced-price lunches. The grants were funded by the federal government but distributed by the states. (211)

The implementation of technology in the schools continued in 1998. In February a $2.5 million project to wire and network most of the district's schools was announced. (212) Most of the money to fund the upgrade came from outside Dubuque. The State of Iowa, as part of a project to upgrade school technology, pledged the district $589,000 annually for five years. Telephone users were also paying into a federally mandated universal service fund which would help school systems upgrade their technology. That fund was expected to pay nearly 60% of the local cost of wiring the buildings. (213)

In February 1998 the district, as in 1996, was a semi-finalist for the United States Department of Education's National Award for Model Professional Development. There had been 86 applications filed in 1998 and 18 semi-finalists chosen. (214) In the same month, the subject of weighted grading came before the board. The subject began with a proposal to include pluses and minuses into the grade point. Computer software was expected to be available for this by the end of the year. The question then expanded to giving more academic credit for honors or advanced classes. The issue was to be studied. (215)

The suggestion by the school board in 1998 of constructing a middle school shared by the public and parochial schools was rejected by the board of education of the ARCHDIOCESE OF DUBUQUE feeling the concept did not fit its faith-based education model. Cooperation between the districts, however, would be continued. JONES JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, for example, offered a half day of math, science and other courses to five of the city's parochial schools. The districts also worked together to honor school-business partnerships and write grants. (216)

In April the learning standards on which work had begun in 1997 were approved by the board of education. As an example, the standards listed specific objectives for reading in elementary, middle school and high school. The next step would be to determine how to assess student accomplishment of the goals. (217) Computers were to play important roles in instruction and, for this reason, the district named seventy-three "computer mentors." Mentors were teachers who were given special training and then asked to help their fellow teachers effectively use computers in their classrooms. The training of the mentors began on April 23, 1998. (218)

In 1998 the district was celebrating its third consecutive year of having one of its teachers being named to EDUCATION'S UNSUNG HEROES.

To improve the 82-year old Prescott Elementary School with additional playground space, the City of Dubuque in 2000 funded a $50,000 playground improvement project with Community Development Block Grant funds. The money provided new fencing, doubled the amount of play equipment, added evergreen trees along the western edge of the playground and an adjustable basketball hoop, and funded the installation of tables and benches. (219)

On December 14, 1999 the district announced that after more than two years of research, weighted grades would be implemented in the district with the 2000-2001 academic year for advanced placement classes. Students earning an "A" grade in such a class would receive five points toward their accumulated grade point. A "B" would earn four points, a C would earn three points, a D would earn one point and an F would equate to zero points.

In 2000, following Expeditionary Learning announced on its website phenomenal gains on standardized tests by Dubuque students after their involvement in its program, a report was issued. Written by John Burgrt, director of curriculum and instruction, the report found no cause-and-effect conclusions between students' test scores and Expeditionary Learning. The reported gains were incorrect. (220)

Dr. Morris was succeeded by Dr. Jane PETREK and then John BURGART. Burgart was succeeded by Dr. Larie GODINEZ.

In 2003 the district became a working partner with HEART. On August 12, 2003 the district announced that it had chosen the site for a new middle school. Forty acres of land west of Radford Road was purchased for $18,750 per acre. (221) In October the district announced that a nearly $1 million budget reduction would be spread across nearly every department and program in addition to dipping into cash reserves to cover the state funding cuts. The same month, it was announced that unstable ground on the site chosen for the new school would require additional construction techniques costing between $500,000 and $1.7 million dollars. (222)

Around 2004 students began using Math Trailblazers curriculum materials that supported conceptual thinking. The curriculum was aligned to Common Core standards. (223)

In 2005 the district, in the first phase of a long-range plan, addressed security, accessibility and crowd control at its outdoor athletic and extracurricular event facility. Dalzell Field, used by three high schools, hosted nearly all major football and track events in Dubuque. Construction costing $668,948.63 allowed the site to be accessed through a series of ramps and stairs integrated into the design of a new concession and restroom facility. This new facility also eliminated the intermingling of home and visiting crowds. Portions of the existing bleachers were removed and wheelchair-seating platforms were installed. A concrete retaining wall incorporated into a portion of the ramp provided the additional area needed to include handicapped parking directly adjacent to the ramp system. (224)

The newly constructed Prescott Elementary School opened in 2006 as one of the first ten charter schools in the state of Iowa. When Prescott’s application for charter status was submitted to the state of Iowa in 2006, the school was required to identify the planned innovative approaches in teaching and learning that would be the instituted if charter status was granted. Prescott staff selected to become an Expeditionary Learning School with a commitment to adding a strong focus on the arts to the curriculum. (225)

In 2009 under Dr. Godinez, the District actively moved toward the purchase of property once owned by the DUBUQUE PACKING COMPANY for the construction of a new middle school. Controversy arose over the cost and location of the land. In January 2010 the board of education voted unanimously against ratifying an agreement to purchase the estimated 40 acres for $14 million. The story of the non-purchase was ranked the Top News Story of 2009. (226) In addition to the cost of the land and the abatement of hazardous waste on the site, controversy also arose over the superintendent's idea of closing several neighborhood elementary schools and relocating the students to WASHINGTON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. After the decision was made not to purchase the Pack land, the potential closing of elementary schools was no longer considered. The board of education also decided to rescind its decision to narrow the district's facility options that included renovation, addition, and closing of schools. A meeting with seventy business leaders found the belief that the board has moved too quickly without public consideration. (227)

The closing of Central Alternative School left questions as to what would be planned for these students. In 2010 the Alternative Learning Center was located at the Forum, the district's administrative office on Chaney Road. Compared to 2009, twenty-one fewer students dropped out of high school. (228) During the academic year 2010-11 the district implemented a BREAKFAST PROGRAM.

In 2011 the Alternative Learning Center moved to Jones Junior High School. The "project based learning" strategy was continued with a school-wide project, the tenth anniversary of the 9-11 tragedy. "Connect" moved to the Forum. This program, targeted at-risk students in grades 8, 9, and 10, provided two semesters of intensive support with gradual return to their home high school. (229) Supportive study groups called Professional Learning Communities were formed by teachers throughout the District. Within these groups, teachers shared successful practices and provided colleagues with ideas for improvement. (230) Teachers throughout the district through Assessment for Learning worked to align curriculum, assessment and instruction.

In 2011, the District moved towards more technology in the classrooms. Projectors, for example, which could be linked to the Internet were installed in elementary social studies classrooms. Teachers were provided with laptops.

In February 2012 the question of entering into a long-term contract with one technology company to provide services to the District was explored. In April the decision to proceed with just one company was reconsidered. The same month it was discovered that a $133,000 "help desk" had never been operational. This was followed the same month with the discovery that several district computer servers had not had anti-virus programs installed. Dr. Godinez stated that she had not been informed of either situation. On Monday, April 30th the board voted unanimously to consider firing the superintendent. On May 1st, Superintendent Godinez gave notice that she was taking an extended leave of absence.

On Wednesday, May 2, 2012 the board unanimously approved the appointment of Stan Rheingans as acting superintendent. Rheingans had been the district's Executive Director of Human Resources since July 2004. On May 30, 2012 the Board and Dr. Godinez reached a termination agreement. (231) The Board then announced that it would conduct its own search for a new superintendent. In June of 2012 Rheingans was named Interim Superintendent and his salary was raised to around $160,000. Rheingans was named the superintendent on September 19th after a search was conducted by the board without professional assistance as in the past. (232)

Dalzell Field construction. Photo courtesy: Dubuque Community School District

Multi-million dollar construction projects for the District began in 2012 with more work done at Dalzell Field. Financing through the local option sales tax allowed the District to make upgrades to the field so that it would conform to the ADA (Americans with Disability Act) access rules and guidelines for public facilities. The District used the project to also make the facility more appealing for athletic and community events. The completed complex featured artificial turf, Musco sports lighting, a regulation eight-lane track, a 3,125 home bleacher section with an additional 1,500 visitor seats, an 11 x 20 feet digital display section on the scoreboard, new locker rooms, new concession stands, tickets booths and an $86,500 private donation-funded bronze statue of Jay BERWANGER. (233)

In April, 2013, the District announced a new four-year technology plan funded by the one-cent sales tax. With the intent of providing tablets to teachers trained on incorporating technology into the classroom, the plan would invest $3.5 million per year for four years. There would also be a $2.5 million commitment to refresh/replace technology as needed. By 2016-2017 both high schools would become one-to-one schools with every student having a tablet. (234)

In August, the District unveiled its new logo (shown at the top of the entry on the left hand side). The figures represent every student, white space represents movement toward the future and diamonds represent communication. Redesign of the approximately 13-year-old logo was part of a district strategic plan goal to more proactively tell the district’s story. A district official said the new logo was a key to establishing a consistent, unified and meaningful representation of what the district was and aspired to become. Cost of the new logo designed by Mike Schmalz of Refinery Design Company in Dubuque was $13,500, paid out of the general fund, and included the logo in various orientations and formats, as well as a complete redesign of district business cards, letterhead and envelopes.

In 2013, Every Child|Every Promise, an alliance with the Community Foundation of Greater Dubuque and its partners worked to expand learning time beyond the regular school day/year. The Dubuque Community School District received a grant to implement the Leadership After-School Program (LEAP) in two of its middle schools. The program offered free after-school activities and a snack to participants. During the year more than 500 students at Jefferson and Washington Middle School were involved. Every Child|Every Promise also led to the Dubuque Campaign for Grade-Level Reading. This initiative focused on the "most important predictor of school success and high school graduation: grade-level reading by the end of the third grade." (235)

Effective July 1, 2014, Iowa schools had the option to choose between a minimum of 180 days or 1,080 hours of instruction in a school year. Only instructional hours counted in that latter option, so recess and lunch were not included. Under the new law, days that started late or ended early -- due to heat, winter weather, or teacher in-service meetings -- counted toward the hours minimum but did not count toward the day minimum; not even as a partial day. In response, the District chose the calendar based on hours and eliminated the spring break. Teacher in-service time was reduced to one hour on Friday mornings. (236)

In March 2014, the State of Iowa renewed the charter school status of Prescott Elementary. Opened in 2006, Prescott, the only elementary charter school in Iowa, was an expeditionary-learning charter school that emphasized experiential, problem-based learning with an integration of the arts. The school was required to renew its charter every four years. (237)

In the fall of 2014 the District unveiled a new teacher-leadership program. Funded by a $3.3 million state grant, an estimated two hundred teachers were given "teacher-leader" status and given the task of working collaboratively with less-experienced peers. (238) In October, the District renamed the Jones Campus to Alta Vista Campus. The new name was to honor the original structure, Alta Vista Mansion, the former home of George Wallace JONES. The site housed the Alternative Learning Center and Connect Program.

In December, 2014 the District announced that it would no longer be using paper time cards for hourly employees or teachers doing work outside the contract hours. The Board approved a contract with Time-Clock Plus for $147,000 to implement a computerized time and attendance system. (239) School district administrators joined business and social leaders in a "My Brother's Keeper" workshop. This began the city's participation in the White House challenge to empower at-risk youth, particularly young men of color. Closing a "racial achievement gap," could help offset a projected skilled labor shortage locally, according to Mayor Roy D. BUOL. (240)

Working to build student involvement in extracurricular activities was a focus of the district for years. In 2013, the district began offering activity buses at the secondary level to provide transportation to students in after-school activities. Middle school involvement, however, tended to decline as students entered high school. During 2013-2014, 57% of students in middle and high school participated in at least one activity. (241)

As 2014 came to an end, renovation of Hempstead High School continued. A new auditorium and practice gym were constructed and classroom space was added. Kennedy Elementary School had a $6.9 million renovation including a two-story, 25,000-square-foot addition with a gym, music and art rooms, kindergarten rooms, special-education rooms and a technology center. (242) Jefferson Middle School received new lockers, and Dubuque Senior High School and Washington Middle School both received roof replacements. (243)

Iowa was one of forty-two states to adopt Common Core standards which were required to be in place for kindergarten through eighth grade in 2014-2015.

In January 2015 the district reported being short of substitute teachers. The problem was nationwide brought about by lower unemployment rates and increased professional development for teachers. Dubuque, using an automated substitute-placement system developed by Frontline, an education software company occasionally had thirty unfilled positions district-wide. These were filled by multiple teachers covering the class during time they would usually have had preparation periods. (244)

In February 2015 it was announced that a $25 million renovation for DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL was moving into the conceptual design phase. (245) The same month, the District announced that an estimated four hundred middle and high school students would be trained by the end of the year in the Green Dot Etcetera, violence-prevention program. The goal of the program was to help students recognize violent situations and to take action to help. A program for the elementary schools was planned for the beginning of the next school year. (246) On March 13, 2015 students at Eisenhower Elementary School missed a day of school when the building was closed. With between 23-28% of the students and 22 of the staff ill each of the previous four days, the District for the first time in its history, chose to close the school to avoid the spread of the flu-like symptoms. (247) The second "School Talk" was held on March 14th at the Forum. The presentation topic was school funding, its importance to the district and the role supplemental state aid plays in budgeting. (248)

In March, 2015 the announcement was made that John and Alice Butler would fund the replacement and renovation of windows and doors at BRYANT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL to return them to their appropriate historic style. The project would also include new historical exterior lighting at the school. The cost of the project, and amount of the donation, was $780,000. (249)

It was announced in April 2015 that Iowa's high school graduation rate rose for the class of 2014. Dubuque was ranked the third-highest among the state's ten largest urban school districts. The four-year graduation rate for Dubuque climbed 2.36 percent from the previous year to 91.49%. (250)

In May 2015 the the district's commitment to students with special needs was challenged by a board member, Matt Strelo. Long an advocate for students with mental-health issues, he said the district had made some positive changes but that other suggestions he had made were not pursued. Strelo charged that the district had "given up on his son," a fourth grader with ADHD and anxiety issues. Strelo stated that while not a single employee of the district did not have the best interests of children in mind, there was a lack of knowledge on how to respond to kids in trauma. (251)

Strelo's son had been placed in a seclusion room as a first grader, ran away from school in second and third, and was home schooled at the end of fourth. Between kindergarten and third grade, the boy had attended three schools. Strelo and his wife filed a state request for a due process hearing as allowed by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. They claimed the school district and Keystone Area Education Agency unilaterally altered the child's Individualized Education Program (IEP), failed to provide a therapeutically appropriate classroom and proposed a drastic change in education by suggesting the child be placed in long-term residential treatment in Cedar Rapids. A settlement was finalized during the first week of May in which the parents agreed to home-school through the end of the year and then re-evaluate the situation. Strelo announced he would not seek re-election to the board and that his family would be moving to St. Louis. (252)

On May 15 the Telegraph Herald editorial board wrote "A Time to Part: Strelo, School Board." Stated in the editorial was,

              We do feel that when a board member takes 
              official action against the same school district 
              he legally represents, there is a conflict of 
              interest (on a practical level, if not legally).
              In this case, with his relationship with the school 
              board and district frayed if not fractured...we 
              believe it would be best for everyone if Matt 
              Strelo concluded his service on the board now." (253)

Strelo's reaction to the editorial came on May 20, 2015 in an editorial entitled,"Shame on Me to Resisting the Status Quo in Our Schools." Strelo challenged the district's effectiveness implied in an article featured on p. 1 of the May 17, 2015 Telegraph Herald. Strelo reminded readers that on April 15, 2015 the Telegraph Herald had published an article entitled "Mental Health 'Crisis' in Schools." (254) Citing Nancy Bradley, director of elementary education for the district, it "can be difficult to connect students with adequate mental health care." Strelo also challenged the assertion of the newspaper that he had orchestrated students to address the board about mental health issues. (255) The newspaper responded on the same page with "Strelo's Response Makes the Case for Resignation." The editorial board cited "his characterization of our statements is inaccurate and hyperbolic" and that several sources confirmed that the students who addressed the board were not aware that Strelo had filed an official complaint against the district. The editorial board also repeated a statement from its editorial of May 17th and originally made by Bradley that "in dealing with students with mental-health issues, our schools are not treatment facilities and they can only do so much. (256)

In June, Dubuque was six months into the My Brother's Keeper initiative, a White House initiative launched the preceding fall, aimed at helping youth reach their potential -- particularly young men of color. Dubuque's local action plan sought to identify local disparities, look to research based practices and leverage existing assets around three goals: (257)

                 All children read at grade level by 3rd grade
                 All youth graduate from high school
                 All youth out of school are employed

The district was recognized in the summer of 2015 by the National School Public Relations Association with an Award of Merit for an episode of the District-Wide Update (www.youtube/CHt9vPOAPhA) produced by the district. The award was part of NSPRA's Publications and Electronic Media Awards which recognize outstanding educational communication materials. The district also received three national awards in the 2015 Hometown Media Awards including the award for Overall Excellence in Educational Programming (for budgets less than $300,000). The district also received the Best Web-Based Program for the Roosevelt Middle School orientation video and an honorable mention in the Magazine Show category for a District-Wide Update. (258)

At the state level, the district received five awards in the Iowa School Public Relations Association annual Communication Contest. The district's 2014 opening of school video entitled "Make Every Second Count," received a Blue and Gold Award for the best entry in its category. The district received Awards of Excellence for the new district website, an episode of the District-Wide Update program, and the Roosevelt Middle School Orientation video. It received an Award of Merit for its brochure about the one-cent sales tax funding. The district's new website received an Award of Excellence from the Art Directors Association of Iowa. (259)

In 2015 the district produced its video content through a partnership with Loras College Productions which provided two full-time professional video producers to serve on the district's communication team. (260)

In the fall of 2015 community members were recruited to become Academic Reading Tutors for the elementary schools in the Campaign for Grade Level Reading. Through the Americorps Partners in Learning program and the district, tutors were trained on reading interventions and strategies which were in alignment with those used in the classroom. Students involved were from grades kindergarten through third. Tutors committed to working for the entire school year for either 450 hours or 900 hours. Working 900 hours, the tutor received a $6,035 living allowance and $2,865 in an education award which could be given to a child, grandchild, or foster child for college tuition, books or student loans. Those working 450 hours received $3,018 and a $1,515.55 education award. (261)

Graduation rates: 2012, 2013, 2014. Photo courtesy: Telegraph Herald

INCLUSIVE DUBUQUE, formed in 2013, was dedicated to advancing justice and social equity in the community. One of the long-standing issues in Dubuque was the racial disparity in the district between staff and students, as well as the need for additional cultural competency training. In 2015 seventeen percent of students in the district were minorities, as compared to 2.2 percent of staff. (262)

Superintendent Stan Rheingans stated that the problem was statewide and partly due to higher pay scales in surrounding states. "We're fortunate to have Loras, Clarke, the University of Dubuque and Emmaus Bible College all with teacher-education programs," Rheingans said, noting the departments, particularly at UD, recently started seeing more diverse enrollment. "As they diversify, we think that's a prime, growing opportunity for us." (263)

The Dubuque Community School Board made expanding cultural training a priority. The district partnered with Dubuque's Human Rights Department to work with high school and some middle school teachers to develop lesson plans addressing racial and cultural differences. (264) Dialogue attendees during the first six months of 2015 expressed the need for more exposure to educational opportunities and outreach to minority students regarding Advanced Placement courses. (265) Of the more than 570 Hempstead and Senior high school students who took an AP test in 2014, 90 percent were white, including those of Middle Eastern origin. Less than 1 percent were Hispanic or Latino and nearly 2 percent were black. This was compared to a high school population where Hispanic or Latino students accounted for 3 percent of the student body and 6 percent for blacks. (266)

At the start of summer vacation in 2013, the Summer Academy, a summer learning pilot program for children in grades 1-3, was started by St. Mark Community Center. The program served forty-five students in Dubuque's Title I schools with reading scores at or below proficiency. The goal was to maintain or increase their reading score over the summer break. At the end of the program, 57% of the students in the seven-week program for 1-3 grade students increased their reading skills based on Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills tests given at the start and end of the academy. Of the remaining students, 27% maintained their reading skills while 16% saw declining skills. Dubuque's efforts to raise reading scores led to the city's recognition as a 2013 Community Pacesetter by the national Campaign for Grade-Level Reading.

IBM, one of the city's newest industries awarded eleven computers to Every Child/Every Promise in 2013. The KidSmart Early Learning computers provided interactive learning activities for pre-kindergarten curricula. Every Child/Every Promise, the Community Foundation, and IBM distributed the computers to nonprofit child care centers where the machines taught socialization skills along with math, science and language skills.

The summer reading program continued in 2015 with the DUBUQUE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT looking for proposals from providers interested in offering a summer enrichment program to complement the reading program offered by the district.

The district increased after-school programming and intervention programs, partnering with numerous nonprofits to promote its grade-level-reading and dropout-prevention initiatives. In 2014 the Foundation for Dubuque Public Schools awarded $10,000 to expand the district's Leadership Enrichment Afterschool Programming at Eleanor Roosevelt Middle School. LEAP's mission was to broaden students' general educational experiences through trying new activities, discovering their talents, reinforcing productive behavior and building self-confidence. LEAP was originally only available to students at Thomas Jefferson and George Washington middle schools due to being funded by a grant supporting the program for Title I schools only. (267)

The district partnered to promote tutoring services at the DUBUQUE DREAM CENTER. (268)

On October 12, 2015 transportation considerations ranked high for the board of education. Realizing the bus-lane improvements had to be completed prior to the 2016-17 school year, the board approved $17,500 in additional design at Senior High School to allow bus-lane improvements to be completed ahead of the overall $30 million renovation project at the school. Also approved were extending the bus loop at Hoover Elementary School and building a new parking lot/bus loop near Irving Elementary School. (269)

The new "face" of Hempstead High School in 2015

On October 3, 2015 Hempstead High School held a dedication and open house celebrating its $30 million renovation. The project, which began in May 2013, included the addition of a 700-seat auditorium, an auxiliary gym with two courts and seating for 450, additional classroom space for music and technology education, a new kiln room in art, new administrative offices and other mechanical and safety enhancements.

Fund-raising by children led to "walk-a-thons" in 2015. Such activities were also part of the district's effort to promote healthier activities. Money raised was used for a variety of activities including improving school library collections. The district' wellness policy was in line with federal regulations which set nutrition standards for all foods and beverages sold to students during the school day and placed restrictions on food-based fundraisers during the day. The local policy was amended in 2011 for out-of-school fundraisers so that students could sell popular foods like cookie dough. (270)

On November 6, 2015 the district hosted Governor Terry Branstad and staffers from his education cabinet. The subject was the state's Teacher Leadership and Compensation System which Dubuque and Western Dubuque were among the first districts in the state to implement. Dubuque by that date had already received more than three million dollars. The program fostered collaboration and support for teachers by pairing experienced teachers with less-experienced peers. More than two hundred "teacher-leaders" were active in Dubuque. (271) In the same month, the district announced it was involved in a initial stages of a mascot redesign for each of the high schools. (272)

Redesigning was also the focus of a grant for a STEM Redesigned Learning Environment model announced in November, 2015. The district was one of twelve programs in Iowa chosen to create either a STEM Redesigned Learning Environment or STEM Business Engaging Students and Teachers Model through the Iowa Governor's STEM Advisory Council. The models transformed classrooms, brought together business and education, and developed pathways from science, technology, engineering and mathematics education to careers. The district partnered with JOHN DEERE DUBUQUE WORKS; IIW, P.C.; DUBUQUE AREA LABOR-MANAGEMENT COUNCIL; Northeast Iowa Community College and LORAS COLLEGE to redesign a pre-engineering classroom at each high school to promote collaboration with technology. The goal was to create a "seamless flow from high school pre-engineering to post-secondary engineering coursework." (273)

For more than twelve years, the district maintained its membership in the National Association for the Exchange of Industrial Resources with an annual fee. Companies including 3M and Rubbermaid donated their excess inventories to the association for tax deductions. The items were then offered to schools churches and nonprofit organizations. The district also participated in the five-time annual "grab bag" events. During these times, member organizations had two hours to grab what they could from the warehouse floors. Each trip was usually worth $2,000-$3,000 worth of floor tiles, carpet squares, light fixtures, paper, and glue. In October, 2015 the district acquired sixteen U-shaped office desks valued at $32,000 in this manner. (274)

The Community Foundation of Greater Dubuque received $61,000 in grants and donations from California-based Vision to Learn and THEISEN'S HOME-FARM-AUTO to fund a pilot program of free eye examinations and eyeglasses for students in low-income schools. Vision screenings were provided annually in the fall in the Dubuque Community School District for students in kindergarten, first, third and fifth grades. Students identified in the school exams would be rechecked by local optometrists in January and February and if in need of glasses would receive two free pairs from Vision to Learn. Letters would be sent in December and January to parents of those students who qualified for the follow-up exam. (275)

Introducing computer coding to elementary students was the goal of Hour of Code held during Computer Science Education Week in December, 2015. Organized by Code.org, the program was developed to interest young students in computer science by having them participate for one hour in actually writing code. (276) Using "blockly" code to help students visually understanding programming, participants dragged and dropped blocks of commands to write programs and make characters perform tasks. (277)

From 2005 to 2015 the number of students in the district with limited English proficiency increased from 98 to 265. Students in the English Language Learners (ELL) program spoke more than twenty different languages including: (278)

                    Albanian     Amharic     Bengali     Bosnian
                    Chinese      Ethiopian   Filipino    French
                    Gujarati     Hindi       Hispanic    Korean
                    Marshallese  Portugese   Russian     Swedish
                    Tagalog      Tamil       Telugu      Thai
                    Urdu         Vietnamese

The largest group of students were MARSHALLESE at 53% of the ELL student population with Hispanic the second largest with 22%. Federal law required that districts ensure all students have equal access to a quality education including school communication with parents in languages they understand. Interpreters, paid $20 per hour with fees covered by federal funding, were often employed at parent-teacher conferences and meetings to determine Individualized Education Program plans for special education students. (279)

In 2016 the future of HILLCREST FAMILY SERVICES Anna B. Lawther Academy was in question. Many school districts including Dubuque for years sent students to the academy for special education services. A change in the interpretation of how special-education funding could be used shifted the the financial burden about $1 million to the Dubuque Community School District. Solutions being considered included purchasing the Academy or constructing an addition to an existing building. There was also the question of staffing an in-district program by contracting services from Hillcrest or hiring new personnel. (280)

In February the school board voted to reinstate a spring break for the 2016-2017 school year. This had been eliminated in 2014. (281) The same month the district chose to offer free passes to residents 65 years of age or older who lived within the district's boundaries. The passes allowed free admission to athletic events, plays and musicals. They were not valid for intra-city competitions or playoff tournaments. (282)

The board announced in February that the superintendent would be developing a plan for an estimated $3 million reduction in the 2016-2017 school year's general fund expenses. In 2015-2016, the general fund expenses totaled nearly $127 million. Budget reductions would help alleviate a decline in the district's unspent balance. An estimated $2.4 million deficit during the 2015-2016 fiscal year was anticipated to decrease the district's unspent balance to $8.7 million. Unchecked, that deficit could continue if expenses such as increases in salaries and benefits outpaced statewide increases to supplemental state aid -- the increase in per-pupil spending. (283)

On March 14, 2016 the school board approved a plan to eliminate a two administrative positions and re-structure other positions. Effective July 1st, the district cut the Associate Superintendent position and the Director of Special Education position. Those two cuts will save the district $340,000. Superintendent Stan Rheingans also unveiled other district-level cuts that brought total budget reductions to a little more than $2 million. That left roughly another $1 million in cuts that would come from the classroom including teachers, para-professionals and school staff. (284) In June, Dubuque Community School District leaders announced they would cut 11 school-level positions the next year in an effort to reduce district expenses. Exactly how many teachers would be impacted by the reductions still was unclear due to the job openings available in the district next year. The school-level reductions amount to 10.5 general-education teaching positions, six at the elementary level and 4.5 — four full-time and one part-time positions — at the secondary level, Kramer said. Other savings were to come from fund reallocation. (285)

The Dubuque Community School Board voted in May, 2016 to put the estimated $30 million project for Dubuque Senior High School out for bids. The plans for the project call for about 59,000 square feet of additions and 69,000 square feet of renovations. New additions include a new cafeteria and gym. (286) On June 23, 2016 when bids were opened for the work it appeared the district could save approximately $1.7 million from their anticipated construction costs. (287)

The board of education approved a policy on animals in the classroom. In September 2016 the policy outlined procedures for the use of service animals and therapy dogs. Service animals were individually trained to work with a person having a disability. Therapy dogs were certified to work with their handlers to "provide emotional support, well-being, comfort or companionship to school district students." Staff members who wished to bring a therapy dog to school had to make a request with district administrators. Principals had ten days to notify families and staff and make plans to accommodate students with allergies. (288)

In 2016 the District implemented the position of home/school liaison at Lincoln Elementary. The first such position in the history of the District, the job involve "enhancing student education by helping remove barriers in the way of children's learning, whether that he struggles for the student, a family, school relationships or a neighborhood." People in the position could come from a variety of backgrounds with a commitment to building positive associations. Other schools to have the position were Fulton, Audubon and Prescott. (289)

Parents of students at Hempstead High School asked the board of education in November to adopt a policy screening classroom materials which might be considered obscene. The parent who requested a review of a book later withdrew her request and filed a reconsideration request based on the book's "graphic sex scenes" and drug and alcohol use. (290)

In December 2016 Paula Baumann, a counselor at JEFFERSON MIDDLE SCHOOL was named the 2016 Iowa Middle School Counselor of the Year. (291) Over the years, several teachers have become finalists in the IOWA TEACHER OF THE YEAR competition.

The Iowa Department of Education prompted by legislation passed in 2013 developed a "report card" on public schools. Data for the report came from standardized tests, graduation rates and survey results. Each year's rating based on a 100-point scale was compiled using data from two school years and was described on the Department of Education website as an "informational tool" without "reward or consequence." In 2017 the report had only been released twice. Measures of parent involvement were being added. Results of a teacher survey were included in the 2017 report. A parent survey would be sent out in 2017 for inclusion in the next report. Superintendent Rheingans referred to the report as a "30,000-foot-view of student achievement" with limited funding from the state remaining an important factor. (292)

Rankings ran from "Exceptional" to "High Performing," Commendable," "Acceptable," "Needs Improvement," or "Priority." State-wide , 2% of the schools were considered "exceptional" with 5% listed at priority.

Source: Telegraph Herald, January 17, 2017

In August 2017 district officials announced their confidence a partnership with other area organizations could be arranged for the construction of a proposed new swimming pool. Board members in June had approved building an addition to Hempstead High School to house a new pool. The proposal estimated to cost between $7.2 and $7.5 million would include a diving well, eight-lane pool and the use of existing lockers and corridors. In August members of the districts pool committee recommended that the new pool's width be expanded from 60 to 75 feet. This was expected to add $1 million to the overall cost. A total of $7 million had been set aside by the district to replace the old pool which had leaked for years. (293)

The announcement was made on September 12, 2017 that the Dubuque Community School District and the Dubuque Area Swimmin’ Hurricanes (DASH) were partnering expand the competition pool in the district. If approved, DASH would get a 25-year rental of the pool during non-district times, and the organization would raise $1 million to expand the pool. The school district had set aside $7 million from One-Cent Sales Tax for the pool. The project was expected to be completed in fall 2019. (294)

Challenge to Change yoga was piloted in the District in the fall of 2017 at Fulton, Lincoln, Sageville and Kennedy schools. The objective of the instruction was to help students learn skills to control their emotions. Instructors would visit each school twice the first month of school and then several more times during the year. (295)

In November, 2017 Brian Howes, assistant principal at DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL was named Iowa Assistant Principal of the Year by School Administrators of Iowa. He came to the district in 1998 and had served as a science teacher at STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD HIGH SCHOOL, instructional coach at WASHINGTON MIDDLE SCHOOL, and a district science curriculum coordinator. (296)

Procurement cards, "P-cards," were first used in the district in 2017. Held by 123 employees, the cards accounted for more than 8,300 purchases for a total of $2.4 million. According to district administration each purchase was documented, itemized and reviewed. The cards offered convenience and did not replace the district's purchase-order process when an expenditure could be foreseen. (297)

On January 8, 2018 the board of education voted not to renew the charter school status of Prescott Elementary School. The only elementary charter school in Iowa and one using the expeditionary-learning curriculum model with an arts integration, Prescott was open to all students in the district and was required to renew its charter every four years. Despite support for the continuation of the charter being voiced, concern was raised by the lack of improvement in academic achievement. (298)

The school board in March, 2018 voted to authorize IIW PC to move into the design development phase of a planned $6 million addition to the Alta Vista campus. The addition would serve in a district building student currently served off-campus by HILLCREST FAMILY SERVICES and Four Oaks. Plans called for sixteen classrooms, four areas for collaborative work, and half-sized gym, and an additional entry with security enhancement. (299)

In response to school violence around the nation, Dubuque County, the City of Dubuque and the district announced in May, 2018 the possibility of having 911 dispatchers have access to their security cameras. The purpose WAS to give officers on the scene, real time information. DUBUQUE POLICE DEPARTMENT officials believed the coordination would help their officers better respond to certain situations. According to those working on the project, the change would not be difficult because the county, city and district already use the same management system. (300)

Construction bids for an addition to the Alta Vista campus came in well within the budget in July, 2018. The plans were for a three-story, 30,000-square-foot addition on the north side of the campus. This would allow the district to bring into the district students currently served by HILLCREST FAMILY SERVICES and Four Oaks. The district had been paying for rent and educational programming at the two sites for students having a variety of needs including mental heal and behavioral issues. For the 2017-18 school year this had amounted to $800,000. The project was scheduled for completion by August, 2019. (301)

In the wake of many instances nationally of violence in schools, in October, 2018 it was announced that the district had purchased insurance that would cover costs if a school shooting occurred. (302)

The first major revision to the elementary report cards was unveiled in the fall of 2018. The "standards-based reports" presented a detailed view of students' "meeting individual components of Iowa's learning standards." The change was intended to "reduce subjectivity in grading." The standards used to assess students were those they were expected to meet at the end of the year. (303)

Faced with the cancellation of classes for ten days between January 14th and February 13th and six other days shortened by weather (a record), the district announced that the length of the school day would be increased by 25 minutes for the remainder of the school year. This was the second time the district had to resort to lengthening the day. In 2007-2008 with eight weather-related cancellation, the district added thirty minutes to each day. The 2008-2009 year added four days at the end of the year. (304)

Improving and coordinating after-school programming took a great forward stride in 2012 with the Learning Enrichment After-School Programs (LEAP). Funded through an $850,000 five-year 21st Century Community Learning Centers grant from the Iowa Department of Education. With the hopes that 175 students from both of the middle school-chosen because they were Title I schools with high numbers of students from low-income families--would participate, administrators were amazed. There were about 240 students from Jefferson who attended 2,374 program sessions and about 263 students from Washington who attended 2,443 sessions. Thirteen community organizations partnered with the district to provide programs.

LEAP programs had four goal areas:

                  a. increasing the well-being of students by a focus on
                     academic achievement,
                  b. enhance the health and social well-being of students
                     by providing programs with social, emotional well-
                     being and physical activities,
                  c. promote preparation for a productive life by
                     providing high-quality and structured activities for
                     students with quality staff,
                  d. promote supportive structures and safe home
                     environments by increasing parent knowledge of
                     adolescent development and assisting parents in
                     helping their children with homework

Activities of LEAP included the zipline, exploring building and design, and creative arts. (305)

Consideration was being given in March, 2019 for the use of the Rave Panic Button app. This would allow staff to open the app and press a button corresponding to the type of emergency--active intruder, fire, medial issue or situation requiring a police response. Under the proposal, the district would enter into a three-year contract with Rave Mobile Safety at $29,800 annually, plus a one-time, $500 setup fee. (306)

Reacting to what they saw as a lack of commitment to schools at the bottom 5% of Title I schools in the state, some area residents mounted an effort in early 2019 to change election procedures for board members. The group proposed that seats on the school board would be filled by ward elections rather than at-large. This, it was thought, would ensure more direct representation of those parents and students living in areas of need. (307)

The district in August, 2019 announced its partnership in a five-year contract with Cenergistic, a company which would establish a customized energy conservation program for the schools. This plan would include price management, energy-efficiency upgrades, and improved conservation practices to reduce utility bills. Cenergistic officials estimated the net savings in the first year to be $182,000 with increases each year following. (308)

The district opened the new Cornerstone Academy, a 27,600 square-foot facility for students with special needs including mental health and behavioral issues. On a tour of the building, school board members saw classroom pods, four classrooms with an office that students could use to meet with staff to process issues and a sensory room for students to regulate their emotions. Located on Alta Vista Street, the facility allowed educational services previously provided at HILLCREST FAMILY SERVICES and Four Oaks at a savings of $1 million that would have been spent annually in rent to the two organizations. (309)

The number of district staff also increased to meet the needs of the English Language Learners (ELL). In the past ten years, the number of these students had more than double. Staff increases were also accounted for by increased in student services including school connections liaisons, home/school liaisons, and life coaches at different schools. School connections and home/school liaison staff worked to ensure there were good relationships the school. Life coaches worked at secondary schools to help them graduate. Many staff were paid using categorical funds received by the district for specific purposes. (310)

In an effort to encourage students to think beyond high school, district officials announced in February, 2020 that a part of a school day in the spring of 2021 would be set aside for students to take the ACT college entrance exam, community college placement tests, or a military aptitude exam. The district would pay the $50-per-student cost for juniors to take the ACT. No expenses were expected for offering the other tests. The proposal was part of the district's five-year strategic plan of having 955 of graduates taking a post-secondary qualifying test by 2013. Students from low-income homes also received waivers from ACT resulting in the initiative meaning these students could use their waiver to take the ACT more than once. (311)

The school district's efforts to ensure children received a proper nourishment took an unprecedented leap with the closing of schools by order of the Iowa governor in March, 2020. Fears of the PANDEMIC sweeping the nation led the district to issue the following:

             Beginning Monday, March 23, the following locations 
             will offer no-cost GRAB-AND-GO meals each weekday 
             (Monday-Friday) for individuals 18 and under (note 
             that infant formula or food will not be available). 
             Sites and schedules may be subject to change, so be 
             sure to check this page often. (312)

Offering educational resources was mentioned on the same page with the following message:

             The Dubuque Community School District is working to 
             provide enrichment resources for students during this 
             closure and we know many families are anxious to have 
             access to learning. 
             At the same time, during this unconventional and 
             stressful spring break, we hope you will take a moment 
             to remember that students have not yet lost any 
             We all desire to provide resources and information 
             to families as quickly as possible. While seemingly 
             easy on the surface, this issue is incredibly 
             complicated and we have many teams working hard to 
             provide resources.
             As a large, complex district serving the needs of 
             many student populations, we are focused on how 
             we can provide educational resources in an equitable 
             way that meets the needs of all students, while also 
             meeting our legal requirements and navigating guidance 
             from the state and federal Departments of Education.
             While we can never match the education gained from 
             being in school, know that we are committed to 
             providing as many resources as possible to students. 
             We are paying especially close attention to those 
             students preparing for graduation this year to ensure 
             that they remain on track to graduate.
             We look forward to sharing additional information the 
             week of March 23 as it develops. (313)

Looking ahead, district officials announced plans for the fall of the 2020-2021 to help students in grades seven and eight who were struggling in school and students with mental health problems. While details were being established, the plan generally called for identifying a place where these students could find a smaller learning environment with a core group of teachers. (314)

During the first week of April, Governor Reynolds announced public school district had three options from which to choose to provide educational opportunities for their students. By April 10th, districts had to notify the state whether they would require their students to participate in online educational services; provide online optional enrichment opportunities; or offer no continuous learning between April 10th and April 30th. If districts chose not to offer continuous learning they would need to make up educational hours missed between April 10th and 30th. Dubuque officials announced their plans to begin "pretty significant voluntary options" starting on April 8th. These would include teacher-produced videos and lessons focused on key areas. Questions existed as to how to serve students receiving special education services and those who spoke English as a second language. There was also a concern about whether students had internet access at home. (315)

The announcement was made in May, 2020 that the Dubuque Community School District was among 765 districts honored as 2020 Best Communities for Music Education by the NAMM Foundation,the philanthropic arm of the National Association of Music Merchants. Factors in the award included funding participation, opportunities, and facilities. (316)

In five weeks within April and May elementary students involved in the distance learning worked with teachers through the Seesaw digital portfolio platform and could receive packets with worksheets. Teachers and students during this period posted an average of between 12,900 times to 14300 times per day. There were approximately 4,800 elementary students in the district.

Middle and high school students accessed the Canvas learning management system. During the week of April 8-16, a period when the district began more "significant enrichment options for this age group of student, there were 4,272 students accessing the system at least once. There were 5,700 students in middle and high school. The number involved in the program dropped over the following weeks to 2,901 during the week of April 30 to May 6. Some teachers utilized emails rather than canvas to connect to students according to the executive director of secondary education. (317)

In March, concern about the PANDEMIC was slowly making its way in a daily substance on the daily news.

School district leaders, faced with the possibility of a second wave of COVID-19 in the winter and aware many students were ill-equipped for distance learning, announced on June 6th the purchase of nearly 2,000 laptops and tablets. The $571,000 purchase was to ensure that every student from prekindergarten through 12th grade would receive a device if schools were again to be closed. In that instance, every pre-kindergartener through first grade students would receive a tablet. Second through fifth graders would receive laptops. Sixth through twelfth grade student already had sufficient laptops. If students were able to attend school in the fall, the technology would be used in the classroom. (318)

The school calendar was changed at the June 8th meeting of the school board. Hoping to make up some of the lost time during the academic year, the board approved moving the start of the new year to August 14th rather than August 24th. Teachers would return to their schools on August 7th. (319)

During the third week of June, 2020 district officials unveiled a $32.6 million second round of renovation to Dubuque Senior High School. These changes would involve classroom renovation; practice and storage areas for the visual arts, music and theater departments; creation of new special education and physical education learning spaces; installation of air conditioning throughout the entire building; changes to the school auditorium; and the construction of two major additions. (320)

Iowa education officials released guidelines June 25th that allowed schools to reopen to normal activities as of July 1 without requiring that students and teachers undergo health checks, wear face coverings or observe social distancing in schools. Jean Hessburg, a spokeswoman for the Iowa State Education Association, the state’s teacher’s union, said the plan did not comply with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for public places. ISEA President Mike Beranek released a statement urging school districts to create their own guidelines mandating face coverings, physical distancing and other safety protocols. The union represents more than 50,000 teachers and other education professionals. The Iowa Department of Education made no public announcement on the guidelines; Gov. Kim Reynolds made no mention of it at a news conference she held earlier in the day. (321)

Governor Reynolds announced in July, 2020 that the state's students had to spend at least half of their schooling in classrooms despite concerns based on the surge of cases of COVID-19. Her ruling did make an exception for parents who wanted their children to shift completely to remote learning. Accommodations also had to be made for any students to learn remotely if they or a person in their home had a health condition which would increase their chance of catching the disease. Dubuque school officials were pleased their plan would meet the new rulings. The Dubuque model called for a beginning school with students divided into two groups and alternative attendance days with remote learning days. (322)

District officials announced on August 4th that 22% of area families had chosen remote learning for their children for the start of the 2020-2021 academic year. (323)

On August 5th Superintendent Rheingans announced his intention to ask the board of education to move back the start of school to August 24th. This followed similar action taken in Iowa City and gave the district additional time for planning contact tracing procedures recognized as important steps in preventing the further spread of the disease. (324)

The district had been ordered by the State of Iowa not to requiring face coverings for students returning to school in the fall of 2020. This, however, was thrown into question when the Dubuque city council voted unanimously to mandate face coverings beginning August 10th. City officials and the Iowa League of Cities argued that cities could "institute a face-covering requirement, a capacity limit or both" through the Home Rule Amendment to the Iowa Constitution of 1968. Dubuque was following Muscatine, Iowa City and Johnson County in issuing face covering requirements. (325)

Concern about the safety of students and teachers led to a petition signed by 1,400 residents being submitted to the Board of Education in August. Among the signers were 165 current district employees or about 7% of the total. The petition was first circulated before the board of education chose to move the opening of school back to August 24th. A total of fifty-nine teachers would scheduled to offer virtual instruction to students in the 2020-2021 school year. The option was made to teachers with health needs and concerns. At the elementary level, teachers had to be recruited to fill the teaching need. The hybrid learning model allowed the district to space students out at schools and the local mandate on wearing face coverings provided protection to students and staff according to the superintendent. (326)

With the opening of school less than a week away, it came as a shock to district officials to find that the state's method of determining the degree of positivity was seriously flawed. Worse ye to many was discovering that the flaws in the data had been known by in Des Moines for over a month. As of August 17th, four of Iowa's 99 counties had a positivity rate exceeding the 15% threshold. That was according to the state's website and the flawed data it was representing. Another ten counties had a 14-day positivity rate averaging 12% to 15%. Dubuque County was in a third category of 12 counties which were in the 12% to 15% range. The analysis by the Telegraph Herald found that the state reported figures had reported the positivity figures were often three percentage points lower than the underlying data. Many epidemiologists found the figure of 15% acceptable for students returning to school very questionable. Many of these physicians felt a more appropriate figure would be between 3% and 5%. (327)

Whether they were physically present at school, children in the district could still get their school breakfasts and lunch in the fall of 2020. School staff operated four grab-and-go meal sites for students on their remote-learning days or students who chose to learn virtually during the pandemic. Unlike the meal program offered earlier in the year, the fall program charged families what they would usually pay for lunch if they were in school. Early reports indicated that the district was serving an estimated 125 meals daily, less than was expected but which was growing. Another meal program was offered by the BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB OF GREATER DUBUQUE which provided evening meals at COMISKEY PARK, Boys and Girls Club, and the Terrace Heights mobile home park. Approval was being sought to extend the program to Audubon and Hoover elementary schools. Officials for HOLY FAMILY CATHOLIC SCHOOLS explained that providing meals to students learning remotely provided some normalcy and helped working parents. (328)

After two weeks of school, data indicated that low-income students and students of color were more likely to be attending classes entirely on line than the student body as a whole. Statistics showed that 24% of students were fully online while the other 76% were alternating in-person and remote learning days. Among students who qualified for free and reduced-price lunches, 35% were learning online. Non-white students were more likely attending school online. Of all racial groups, black students with 52% or 527 students were most likely choosing that option. Hispanic students made up 31% of online learners and native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander students made up 39%. (329)

On Friday, September 18th the State of Iowa and Dubuque County were again listed as "red zones" for the virus. Using the Telegraph Herald's method of computing positivity, the fourteen day COVID-19 positivity rate exceeded 15%, one of the determinants used by state officials to determine whether schools can switch to remote learning. Balancing this was the fact that the district's internal COVID-19 numbers indicated 27 positive cases from among an estimated 8,000 students and 2,000 staff members, student teachers, and contract employees. (330) As of September 18th, Dubuque County had recorded 2,636 cases with 40 deaths, 1,867 recovered, and 27,494 tested. (331)

Enrollment in the district declined between 2015 and 2020. Figures indicated that overall the enrollment fell 4.5% with the enrollment in October 2020 at 10,747. The decline from 2019 to 2020 was 2.8%. Superintendent Rheingans noted that every large district in the state had reported a decline and that the state's budget guarantee meant that the district's spending authority would be maintained for the following school year. If the enrollment did not rebound, however, the funding level would be lowered. (332)

The need by secondary students for hygiene products, laundry detergent and laundromat tokens, food that could be prepared with minimal ingredients, and clothing, the "open closet" project, was funded in 2020 by the Foundation for Dubuque Public Schools. The advent of COVID-19 worsened conditions for students. Several years ago an "open closet" program had been established at Washington Middle School by Lindsay Boyer, a life coach, with financial contributions by staff. Plans called to the establishment of Foundation funded programs at both middle schools by the holidays. The estimated cost for opening a program was $5,000 while maintaining a program ranged from $2,500 to $3,500 annually. Donations for the operation of the project could be made at amyu@dbqfoundation.org. (333)

Fed by the pandemic, a soaring demand for laptop computers for students nationwide led the district to remain under-supplied after three months of school. In June, administrators ordered 1,690 laptops to distribute to students in second through fifth grade. This was to ensure that every student had access to a device for remote instruction in the fall. By the end of October, the district had only received 490. Hopes were expressed that the remaining laptops would be shipped by late November meaning the district by early December. It was estimated to take a week to get the computers to the students before they left for their holiday break on December 22nd. (334)

Parent-teacher conferences during the PANDEMIC were altered. Usually a time when parents visited the schools with or without their students, conferences offered the parents the option of choosing a phone call, the traditional meeting at school, or virtual conferences using Zoom. At the middle school level, parents conferences with one teacher who had notes on each student provided by the other teachers. (335)

Despite pleas from most medical professionals not to be involved in large gatherings, many Americans were expected to gather in semi-traditional numbers for Thanksgiving. In anticipation of this and with numbers of college students returning home for the holiday, the Dubuque Community School District announced on November 20, 2020 new plans. As a precaution, all classes would be held remotely for one week after Thanksgiving. (336)

A return to the earliest history of talented and gifted education in the Dubuque public schools was seen in November, 2020 as questions arose about the selection process. In "seeking to look beyond student achievement data and a body of other evidence," those charged with gifted programming were attempting to match the "demographics of gifted programming with the demographic of the district as a whole." The goal would be to better represent students from low-income backgrounds, students of color, students receiving special education services and English-language learners. The effort would reverse relying too much on student achievement and then using a team of educators to make decisions.

One idea was using an ability screener that would quantify student potential. The screener would be visual to allow students having difficulty with a language-based tests to show their abilities. The screener would also benefit special education students who were also gifted. The screener would "identify students' cognitive ability versus their achievement ability." (337)

The new approach reminded educators of the early 1970s of the programming suggested by Dr. Irving Sato who spoke frequently at the time to the state level meetings of talented and gifted supporters. Dr. Sato referenced a multi-dimensional approach to choosing students for gifted education. He defined the gifted and talented as "those who excel consistently (or show the potential for doing so) academically, creatively, kinesthetically and/or psycho/socially. Dr. Sato reminded those attending the conferences that it was the rare individual who possessed all four categories. It was unfair "to cast aspersions" simply because their particular gifts were not reflected in their scores on national academic aptitude tests. (338)

Hearing impaired students who relied on seeing lips and faces met additional challenges due to the pandemic. Staff members found one possibility in the wearing of clear masks. While these allowed the hearing impaired to see the speaker's lips moving, the plastic masks muffled sound. One of the educational changes in 2020 was the increase in online learning. This proved to be beneficial to the hearing impaired. Students at home worked in an environment better suited to listening through hearing aids aided by reading captions on the screen. (339)

With the goal of ensuring students across the district receive similar learning experiences, administrators moved toward standardization in the winter of 2020. "Blueprint courses" for every sixth through 12th grade class presented a basic framework of assessments, access to coursework and learning standards for teachers to use with students. Julie Lange, director of the district's digital literacy, described the process as "a package deal that's pushed out to the teacher." The "blueprint" was a minimum expectation with the goal of equity in students' learning. Teachers were able to add their own assignments on top of the basic course structure. "They can dress things up if they would like." (340)

To increase students' college and career readiness, district officials announced the start of the VERTEX initiative in January, 2021. Aimed at students in the middle and high school, the program would provide students with such experiences as job shadowing, mentorship, service learning and internship, and work experiences. These experiences were to be supported by academic opportunities including career-and-technical education and advanced placement and concurrent enrollment courses. (341)

At the January 12, 2021 meeting of the board of education, officials were informed by the superintendent that the daily average number of active cases reported had been 16 students and nine staff. An estimated 8,000 students attended in-person classes or participated in school activities. About 2,000 staff members, student teachers and contract employees worked in the buildings. The decision on when the district would return to full-time, in-person learning was left to decide until after it was clear if state legislators would address the issue in the new session. A survey of teaching staff found that 72% of the respondents indicated that they would feel comfortable returning to the classroom after getting a vaccine while 18% said they felt comfortable before getting a vaccine with the rest marking "other." (342)

Iowa exceeded 300,000 COVID-19 cases on January 14th and reported 19 more deaths. The state's death toll was 4,251. Subtracting the number of recoveries (262,225) and the number of deaths (4,251) from the total number of cases (301,442) showed that on that date there were 34,966 active positive cases in the state. (343)

Absenteeism, a chronic problem where students were absent for 10% of the attendance days or more, was dramatically affected by the pandemic. This was despite the district starting with students alternating in-person and remote attendance days and then switching to fully in-person learning as well as offering a fully online option. (344)

             Elementary School          Middle School            High School
2018-2019          10%.................... 16.7%..................  27.7%
 (ended March 23)  13.0%.................. 18.2%..................  27.9%
 (as of March 23)  23.3%.................. 25.6%..................  31.3%

Dubuque Superintendent Rheingans announced in April, 2021 that the district's plans for the one-time funding of $14.6 million in COVID-19 relief would be to help students catch up on their learning. The money was allocated to districts based on the percentage of students they served from low-income backgrounds. Among the potential uses would be opportunities for remediation and opportunities of high school students to make up course credits or extending learning for talented and gifted. Funds could be used to allow more students into the summer reading academy and remove transportation barriers, support before and after-school programming and teacher professional development. Federal funds would be available until September 30, 2023. Funds not used by that time would be lost, so emphasis would be placed on programming that could be continued after funding ended. (345)

In May, 2021 the district for the second time for its commitment to music education. The district was one of 686 nationally recognized as 2021 Best Communities for Music Education by The NAMM Foundation, the philanthropic arm of the National Association of Music Merchants. The recognition "is awarded to districts that demonstrate outstanding achievement in efforts to provide music access and education to all students." To qualify, district officials submitted information about areas such as funding, music class participation, instruction time and 'community music-making programs.' (346)

At its May 10, 2021 meeting the school board voted to approve the non-renewal of the district's lease of the Dubuque Soccer Complex to the Dubuque Soccer Alliance. The lease was set to expire in May 2023 and board members wanted to give the soccer alliance the option to purchase the land which it had leased since 1993. Lease arrangements had been that the alliance paid $1 annually to rent the facility and take care of maintenance and improvements. Alliance officials said they intended to keep the 50-acre facility, but were waiting for the board's action. (347)

One of the major implementations of the District in 2020 was online learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. On May 25th, district officials announced that because there was enough interest in the program, it would be continued in the fall of 2021-2022. A survey of students currently learning online indicated that 450 to 500 of them said they would prefer continuing the process. (348)

In June, 2021 school administration announced in June, 2021 the addition of thirteen new "Core+" teaching positions to help students catch up on skills lost during the pandemic. The teacher, one in each elementary school, would work with students in small groups and offer tutoring to meet academic standards. Funds for the new staff were made available through nearly $20 million from three federal relief packages enacted during the pandemic. The Core+ teacher positions were created as two-year positions based on the availability of federal funds. (349)

The same month, district officials announced the hiring of Dierre Littleton as the new director of equity. He came to Dubuque from the University of Central Arkansas where he had served as associate director for the office of diversity. His role in the district would be to "organize coordinate, communicate and manage various aspects of educational equity to enhance student learning while collaborating with internal and external stakeholders to maximize the educational opportunities available to each student." (350)

District officials and the Dubuque County Conservation Board approved an agreement in June, 2021 over splitting the costs and time of a full-time naturalist. The person hired would manage a district-wide Outdoor Adventures program offering science for pre-kindergarten through fifth grade students. Lessons would be age-appropriate with the pre-K "Growing Up Wild" program keeping the students at their school. Kindergarten students would follow a "What the Habitat" plan with lessons at SWISS VALLEY NATURE PRESERVE. Astronomy would be the focus of first-graders with second-graders studying water, rocks, and soil at their schools. Third graders would follow a "Life on the Prairie" program with native furs and skulls at either the MINES OF SPAIN STATE RECREATIONAL CENTER or Whitewater Canyon Wildlife Area. Full-day courses at SWISS VALLEY would cover geology, fossils, and landforms at Swiss Valley. Fifth graders would have two full-day lessons studying wetlands and woodlands. A by-product of the program would be to engage students and their families with the park system. (351)

In 2021-2022 the district offered a fully virtual option for students. Although the number of students using the online option dropped significantly since the previous year, numbers increased with the rise of the delta variant and the lack of a vaccine for those under the age of twelve. The number of elementary students doubled in August. There was a small growth in the number of older students studying online. The three elementary teachers offering online instruction were based at SAGEVILLE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. Instruction was offered for first through fifth graders with each teacher assigned to specific grades but still able to assist the other two with student needs. Middle and high school students were accessing the majority of their classes through the Edgenuity online platform although several courses were offered using video conferencing. Plans to office, live virtual instruction to middle school students were cancelled due to the few students enrolling. (352)

Following the approval of Iowa Department of Education officials, the Dubuque Community School District in October, 2021 began offering at-home COVID-19 tests to families as an option for students showing COVID-19 symptoms. Provided by the Test Iowa program at no cost to the district, the kits were given to families who might not have health insurance or a primary care provider or even transportation to a source of the tests. The saliva-based test taken at home was to be mailed to the State Hygienic Laboratory in a prepaid envelope. If a positive result was found, usually within three to five days, local health officials would be notified and follow ups would be scheduled with the family. (353)

On October 8, 2021 the Dubuque Community School District reported 35 cases of COVID-19 among students with six cases among staff. This was a decline among students by 17. (354) On October 11, 2021 the Dubuque Community School Board on a vote of 5-2 approved a policy that no mandate to wear masks would be made for a school until it had a 3% virus positivity rate. (355)

In October 2021 the Dubuque Community School District was nearing the completion of their first year of their career and college readiness initiative, VERTEX. VERTEX was designed around the concept that career and college readiness was about more than one experience. The process begins in middle school and continues through high school while providing experiences that get progressively deeper over time, moving through the areas of awareness, exploration, and application.

Students were provided with meaningful workplace awareness, exploration and hands-on work experiences as they prepared to make decisions about their future. Experiences included job shadowing, mentorship programs, services learning, and internship/work experience. These experiences were supported by career technical education and Advanced Placement courses to concurrent enrollment courses at area higher education institutions.

VERTEX supported a variety of current programs that connected students with employers in real-world work experiences including: Work-Based Learning Program, School-to-Work Program, Summit Program, Transition Alliance Program (TAP), Housing Education and Rehabilitation Training (HEART) Program, and Iowa Jobs for America’s Graduates (IJAG). (356)

In the summer of 2021 district officials invited all incoming second-grade students to attend the Summer Academy in part because of the disruptive effect the PANDEMIC had on their education. Officials had looked at the first-grade group and found they were 7 percentage points below the district average in literacy proficiency. A total of 219 students representing about 30% of the eligible students across the district participated. The Academy was continued in 2022 with 200 students attending the four-week program. (357)

It was announced on February 2, 2022 that Donna Schmitt, a technology coach at Carver Elementary School, was among six recipients of the 2022 Iowa STEM Teacher Award. (358) Sponsored by Kemin Industries, the award honored one teacher from each of the six STEM regions for their contribution and dedication to STEM in Iowa. Each winner received a $1,500 award with an additional $1,500 to be used in their classroom. Schmitt had fifteen years of teaching experience at Carver and fifteen years at DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL. The award was presented to Ann Arnold and the Alternative Learning Center in 2020. (359)

District leaders decided to pursue opening a permanent online school for secondary students. The district began offering a fully virtual learning program in the fall of 2020 during the pandemic and continued the program. At the conclusion of the 2021-2022 school year, however, Iowa school districts were no longer be permitted to temporarily offer online learning. Any school that wished to offer online schooling had to complete the state certification process. At the time of the application to the state, there were twenty other district offering such programming. (360)

In February, 2022 district officials announced that a total of 237 solar panels would be installed on the roof of SAGEVILLE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL along with a five-battery backup array to store excess energy for use during lower solar energy days. The action came as a result of a pilot program carried out at a building used by the district's buildings and grounds department. Using LED lights and solar panels led to the virtual elimination of the cost of electricity in that building. After examining the energy-use of each school, Sageville was chosen as the best option for the project which was estimated to cost about $300,000. Funding came from the physical plant and equipment levy. The building was expected to save $30,000 annually after the new equipment was installed. Work of installation was not expected to begin until late spring of 2023.

History for the district was made on February 28, 2022 when Amy Hawkins became the first Dubuque native to be appointed the superintendent of schools.

Staff retention posed serious problems to the district in the spring of 2022 just like any other business in the city. Locally some restaurants had to close early because of a lack of staff. Given the classroom challenges of the last two years due to the pandemic, a pro-active measure was announced on March 2, 2022. The district offered a retention incentive of $500 to district employees who were under contract on or before February 1st of the current school year. Money for the payments came from federal COVID-19 funds the district had received. An estimated 1,900 staff members were expected to receive the money by March 11th resulting in a cost of about $950,000. Earlier in the year, the district had approved a $2,000 stipend for teacher substitutes who worked 80% of school days. This money was to be received in June. Substitute secretaries, paraprofessionals and food service workers received a pay increase of from $11.70 per hour to $13. This had gone into effect in November. (361)

By 2022 district counselors were reporting more students reporting anxiety and suicidal thoughts as a result of the pandemic. To evaluate the district's plans for dealing with such problems, a coalition of school resource officers, counselors, nurses, principals, a licensed psychiatrist, a mental health practitioner and a parent was formed in March. Under current procedures, staff members noticing warning signals would accompany the student to the school counselor who would contact parents. A safety plan would be developed and family members would be directed to community resources. Members of the coalition would discuss whether these steps would be changed, district suicide prevention curricula, professional development requirements, and potential suicide screening assessment in schools. The eventual plan would be written into an online manual accessible to all staff and easily updated. (362)

In September, 2022 the district sold Fulton Elementary School to the DUBUQUE DREAM CENTER which planned to renovate the building as a second operational site. A meeting was held the same month to update community members on the district plans for consolidating the three middle schools into two no later than the fall of 2026--a goal which had been approved by the board of education in April. (363)

In the fall of 2022, the number of therapy dogs in the district more than doubled. The record for having a therapy dog for students belonged to Terry Breibach, a teacher at Hempstead High School, who had one for twenty years. A teacher at Jefferson Middle School had one for three years. In 2022 a total of four new dogs were added to visit Lincoln Elementary School, Bryant Elementary School and the Alta Vista campus. Studies indicated that these dogs could help reduce stress. (364)

Student absenteeism, in part caused by the pandemic, was a cause of concern in the District as the 2022 year came to an end. Students were considered chronically absent after missing 10% of more of the school days in any year regardless of the absences being considered excused or unexcused. Statistics on the subject were:

                            12.9% chronically absent in 2018-2019
                            18.9%                       2019-2020
                            27.4%                       2020-2021 (partially due to required quarantine periods)
                            26.0%                       2021-2022

Moving beyond the pandemic as a cause, educators studied absenteeism as it related to low socioeconomic status. Researchers from the Attendance Works and the Everyone Graduates Center at John Hopkins University highlighted poverty levels in 2016 in a study of chronic absenteeism nationally. The study found that half of the nation's chronically absent students were found in just 4% of its districts. Nearly half of that 4% were 'urban school districts of modest to large size.' The fact the absenteeism was also found in rural districts led researchers to conclude that absenteeism followed poverty wherever it was found in significant concentration. During the 2021-22 school year, Sageville and Kennedy (the two schools with the lowest percentage of students of low socioeconomic status--19% and 24.7%) were also the schools with the lowest absenteeism rates--4% and 9%. In contrast, Audubon, Fulton, Prescott, and Lincoln (four of the five Title I elementary schools) recorded the highest absenteeism and percentage of students of low socioeconomic status in the district.

Title I schools in the district in 2022 had "school connectors" to work with parents and students on absenteeism. Connectors visited families' homes and helped establish school routines, provided students with JULE (THE) bus passes and helped get students access to winter clothing if they walked to school. School officials also worked with the City of Dubuque to address transportation barriers to students in Title I school. This help included allowing Prescott students to ride an existing route of the city's Jule bus service for free with district supervision.

One local organization working to reduce absenteeism was the DUBUQUE DREAM CENTER which used a program called "In Your Life" mentoring. The program linked caring adults like volunteer mentors, center staff and school connectors to help them establish individualized action plans around education. School officials provided Dream Center staff with quarterly attendance reports for the students it served so that progress could be tracked with incentives or support if needed. Dream Center officials found that prior to the pandemic nearly 80% of the students it served met attendance standards. While falling during the pandemic, in late 2022 the figure had risen to 70%.

The COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF GREATER DUBUQUE partnered with Dubuque County Early Childhood and local family therapist Julie Homb to publish the book Be a Healthy You! In School! Distributed to all students in preschool through first grade in Dubuque and Western Dubuque school districts, the book's aim was to build student confidence about school and offer tips to parents to encourage attendance. (365)

In December, 2022 emergency responders and school officials finalized the implementation of new emergency radios in all school buildings. The new radios were part of a larger school safety effort by Governor Kim Reynolds who announced $100 million in funding for school safety in June including $4.5 million for emergency radios in schools. While Dubuque school district officials acknowledged they had a number of systems for contacting 911 in an emergency, they agreed that the new direct radio was an improvement. Dubuque Community Schools, Western Dubuque, and HOLY FAMILY CATHOLIC SCHOOLS under the new system would have their own radio channel separate from the main law enforcement dispatch channel. Each school would also have an emergency button installed that would alert law enforcement instantly to an emergency. Any school wishing to have an assessment done to improving school safety would undergo a vulnerability assessment by state officials which would result in recommended safety-related projects. (366)

School officials in December, 2022 their intention to enhance computer science offerings and involve younger students in the field. At the time 7.5% of the students in the Class of 2022 took a high-level computer science course. Courses in multimedia, video production, computer sience principles and Advanced Placement computer science were offered. A web design course was taught in partnership with Northeast Iowa Community College. A trouble-shooting class was to be offered in the fall of 2023. In addition computer science and information pathways: four-year plans to guide high school students through the necessary courses for a certificate in computer science or to be prepared for a degree in a related field were envisioned. Increasing computer science awareness to younger students was planned through robotics and coding activities. (367)

Nationwide campaigns to remove some books from school libraries or lists of required reading came to Dubuque in 2022. A Dubuque Community Schools committee suggested that three books be removed from the district's curriculum. Some students raised concerns they were reading racial slurs or hearing slurs read to them. The books were To Kill a Mockingbird, Of Mice and Men, and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. (368)

Read More: Dubuque Schools Committee Suggests Banning 3 Books From Classes | https://khak.com/dubuque-schools-committee-suggests-banning-3-books-from-classes/?utm_source=tsmclip&utm_medium=referral

Read More: Dubuque Schools Committee Suggests Banning 3 Books From Classes | https://khak.com/dubuque-schools-committee-suggests-banning-3-books-from-classes/?utm_source=tsmclip&utm_medium=referralThree books would be removed from the school district's list of required reading for high school students due to their significant use of racial slurs. The books would still be available in the school library. T

Read More: Dubuque Schools Committee Suggests Banning 3 Books From Classes | https://khak.com/dubuque-schools-committee-suggests-banning-3-books-from-classes/?utm_source=tsmclip&utm_medium=referral

In early December, 2023 board members were given a tour of the former MEDLINE building at 7900 Chavenelle Road. The district planned to purchase a portion of the 67,000-square-foot building to create a preschool center scheduled for opening in 2024. The center would provide space for up to ten classrooms although one preschool classroom would be maintained at each of the elementary schools. The building, owned by DUBUQUE INITIATIVES, was also slated to contain a child care center operated by the DUBUQUE COMMUNITY YMCA/YWCA with another portion shared between the City of Dubuque and Dubuque County for a 911 operations center. The district planned to purchase their share for $986,370 using 1-cent sales tax funds. There was another portion of the building containing 5,300 square feet adjacent to the district's portion still available for purchase. The district would have the right of first refusal to purchase that portion which could add another four classrooms. (369)

Proposed changes to the Area Education Agencies which provided special education and other services to Iowa's school district were carefully studied by the district in early 2024. As proposed by Governor Kim Reynolds, the state's AEAs would only be authorized to provide special education services with special and general education to students in juvenile detention or foster care systems. General supervision authority and $20 million from the AEAs wold be shifted to the Iowa Department of Education. State funds for a school district's special eduation servies currently given to the AEA would remain with the district with district officials deciding how they would be spent. The goal of Reynold's proposal would be to return AEAs to helping students with disabilities and providing choice so that district with 'underperforming' AEAs could seek services from other sources. Districts satisfied with their AEA could continue to use them. Districts could also choose a neighboring AEA or hire a private contractor.

Stan Rheingans, former superintendent in Dubuque and then chief administrator of Keystone AEA, expressed concern that 'hundreds' of responsibilities currently handled by AEAs would be eliminated. According to Iowa law if 60% of the local school boards within an AEA representing 60% of the enrollment in that AEA requested an additional service for students, employees, or school board members, that AEA was required to provide that service within its financial capabilities. Rheingans also stated that the Iowa Department of Education had asked AEAs to take on additional tasks over many years. The additional services were the result of legislation. This, according to Rheingans, had caused the AEAs to grow and high high administrative salaries. Eventually most of this was retracted.

Reynold's proposal would also set the minimum starting salary for Iowa teachers at $50,000-an increase from the current $33,500. (370) The final pay proposal was 3% increase to the districts to cover all expenses including salaries.

No employee threatened to exceed the employment records of teachers held by Amelia C. ANDRES and Bessie V. MCCRANEY

In 1929 educators in Dubuque had elementary students monitor their weight
Elementary students were provided health rules to follow.
A record of musical practice. Photo courtesy: Bob Reding
Photo courtesy: Bob Reding
In the late 1890s, high school students and their parents attended an all-day boat cruise. Image courtesy: Diane Harris



1. "The First School," Dubuque Daily Herald, November 22, 1896, p. 4

2. Oldt, Franklin T. The History of Dubuque County, Iowa, Chicago: Western Historical Company, 1880, p. 218-219.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., p. 524

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., p. 558

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., p. 559

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid., p. 560

14. "School Matters in Dubuque County," Dubuque Democratic Herald, February 2, 1864, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640202&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

15. "Board of Education," Dubuque Democratic Herald, September 27, 1863, p. 4, Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18630927&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

16. "Board of Education," Dubuque Democratic Herald, January 20, 1864, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640120&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

17. "Board of Education," Dubuque Democratic Herald, May 31, 1864, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640531&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

18. "Election of Teachers," Dubuque Democratic Herald, July 13, 1864, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640713&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

19. "Board of Education," Dubuque Democratic Herald, September 4, 1864. p. 4Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640904&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

20. "School House Improvements," Dubuque Democratic Herald, August 26, 1864, Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640826&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

21. "Board of Education," Dubuque Democratic Herald, June 16, 1864, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=A36e8EsbUSoC&dat=18640616&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

22. "Educational," Dubuque Herald, June 7, 1874. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740607&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

23. Kruse, Len. "Prescott-Dubuque's First Public High School," My Old Dubuque, Center for Dubuque History, Loras College, 2000, p. 269-270

24. Ibid., p. 561

25. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, November 12, 1865, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18651112&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

26. "Important to Teachers," Dubuque Herald, December 15, 1865, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18651214&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

27. "Profane Teachers," Dubuque Herald, April 19, 1866, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18660419&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

28. "School Board Report," Dubuque Herald, July 18, 1866, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18660718&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

29. Kruse, p. 561

30. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, July 24, 1866, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18660724&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

31. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, August 10, 1866, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18660810&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

32. "Examination of Public Schools," Dubuque Herald, June 22, 1866, p. 4

33. Ibid., p. 563

34. Ibid., p. 564-565

35. Ibid., p. 565

36. Ibid. p. 566

37. Chaichian, Mohammad A. White Racism on the Western Urban Frontier: Dynamics of Race and Class in Dubuque, Iowa (1800-2000) Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2006, p. 93

38. "Public Schools Closed," Dubuque Herald, September 13, 1872, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18720913&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

39. Chaichian, p. 567

40. "Examination in Physiology," Dubuque Herald, August 8, 1873, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18730808&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

41. "Nominations for School Directors," Dubuque Herald, March 3, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740303&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

42. Oldt, p. 221

43. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, May 1, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740501&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

44. "Normal School," Dubuque Herald, August 13, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740813&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

45. "School Laws of Iowa," Dubuque Herald, August 25, 1874, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18740825&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

46. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, May 28, 1875, p. 4. Online: ttps://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18750528&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

47. 'Teachers' Work," Dubuque Herald, June 28, 1879, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18790628&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

48. Chaichian, p. 570

49. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, June 15, 1875, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18750615&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

50. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, August 6, 1875, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18750806&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

51. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, September 20, 1875, p. 4. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18750921&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

52. "No Colored Children in Schools," Dubuque Herald, September 9, 1875. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18750909&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

53. "New Teacher," Dubuque Herald, September 5, 1875, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18750905&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

54. Chaichian, p. 93

55. "The Fifteenth Amendment," Dubuque Herald, February 20, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770220&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

56. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, April 26, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760426&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

57. "Teachers' Institute," Dubuque Herald, May 21, 1876, p 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760521&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

58. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, August 15, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760815&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

59. "Our High School," Dubuque Herald, January 8, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760108&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

60. "Teachers' Institute," Dubuque Herald, September 24, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760924&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

61. "No Recess," Dubuque Herald, October 14, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18761014&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

62. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, November 2, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18761102&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

63. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, March 23, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770323&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

64. "Examining the Public Schools," Dubuque Herald, May 29, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770529&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

65. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, July 1, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770701&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

66. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, January 1, 1878, p. 8. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18780101&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

67. Oldt, p. 575

68. Ibid.

69. "The Public School Expenses for March," Dubuque Herald, April 2, 1878 (no pages given)

70. "Board of Education," Dubuque Herald, July 29, 1879, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18790729&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

71. Kruse, p. 575

72. Oldt, p. 30

73. "Teachers' Certificates," Dubuque Herald, September 3, 1880, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18800903&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

74. "Excellence of the Dubuque Schools, Dubuque Herald, June 15, 1890 (no pages given)

75. "Board of Education--Our Public Schools Re-Named in Honor of Distinguished Americans," Telegraph Herald-Times Journal, Sept. 24, 1889, p. 3

76. Andrea Wallis Aven--"The Wallis Family Tree" and photographs.

77. "Municipal Molecules," Dubuque Daily Herald, October 1, 1892, p. 4

78. "A School for Deaf Mutes," Dubuque Daily Herald, January 12, 1892, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18920112&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

79. "Municipal Molecules," Dubuque Daily Herald, November 1, 1892, p. 4

80. Oldt, p. 920

81. Ibid.

82. "Eager for Education," Dubuque Daily Herald, March 15, 1893, p. 4

83. "Educational," Dubuque Daily Herald, February 1, 1895, p. 5

84. "School Matters," Dubuque Daily Herald, September 23, 1896, p. 5

85. Sabin, Henry. "School Laws of Iowa," Fr. R. Conaway, State Printer, 1897 Online: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=lgdCAAAAIAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s

86. Oldt, http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-22-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

87. Oldt, p. 920

88. Ibid.

89. Oldt. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-22-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

90. "Doors Open Again," Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, January 6. 1903, p. 5

91. "Athletics Dull," Telegraph Herald, March 5, 1903, p. 2

92. Oldt.History of Dubuque County, Iowa. Chicago: Goodspell Historical Association, 1911, p. 200

93. "Color Question Up," Evening (Marshalltown, IA) Times-Republican, December 15, 1905, p. 2

94. "Schools Will be Library Branches," Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, November 1, 1906, p. 6

95. Oldt.History of Dubuque County, Iowa. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-23-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

96. "Teach Sex Facts in Public Schools?" Dubuque Herald, February 3, 1910, p. 10

97. "Secret Society Question is Up," Dubuque Herald, May 25, 1910, p. 7

98. "Inspection of the City Schools," Dubuque Herald, May 11, 1910, p. 2

99. "Dubuque May Have a "School Nurse," Dubuque Herald, July 27, 1910

100. Ibid.

101. "Board Increases Teachers' Salaries," Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, May 11, 1911, p. 12

102. Phase V Architectural/Historical Survey/Evaluation Final Report. Online: http://weblink.cityofdubuque.org/WebLink8/DocView.aspx?id=44950&page=1&searchid=9d0a32ca-655e-4868-b2d1-db38eb62e79b, p. 11

103. "School Drive for Armenians Ends," Telegraph Herald, March 14, 1920 Part II, p. 1

104. "Part-Time School Resumes Monday," Telegraph Herald, January 1, 1920, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19200101&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

105. "Women's Club Told of Junior Schools," Telegraph Herald, April 14, 1920, p. 14

106. "School Board To Be Asked for Special Election," Telegraph Herald, April 19, 1920, p. 1

107. "O.K. Plans for Junior High on Grandview," Times-Journal, June 19, 1921

108. "Summer School To Be Resumed in City, Plan." Times-Journal, July 8, 1921, p. 5

109. "Thrift Course in Dubuque Schools," Telegraph Herald, February 12, 1922, p. 15. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=lJBSAAAAIBAJ&sjid=iM0MAAAAIBAJ&pg=3001,445377&dq=peter+cooper+school+dubuque&hl=en

110. "Flower Outlines New School Plan," Telegraph Herald, Sept. 26, 1922, p. 4

111. "Open House Day at Senior High," Telegraph Herald, May 10, 1925, p. 7

112. "School Board Meeting Private," Telegraph Herald, May 25, 1925, p. 4

113. "Supt. O. P. Flower Asked to Resign School Post," Telegraph Herald, May 25, 1925, p. 4

114. "Discharge of O. P. Flower Is Rescinded," Telegraph Herald, July 17,, 1925, p. 1

115. "School Board Meeting Private,"

116. "Fred G. Stevenson New Superintendent," Telegraph Herald, June 15, 1926, p. 2

117. "English Pheasant Eggs Received," Telegraph-Herald and Times Journal, May 18, 1927, p. 2

118. "Sun Baths May be Given Children of Dubuque Schools," Telegraph-Herald and Times-Journal(2nd Edition), May 22, 1927, p. 1

119. "Dubuque's Normal Training School Receives Praise," Telegraph Herald-Times Journal, Nov. 28, 1927, p. 7

120. "Central High Not To Be Abandoned," Telegraph Herald and Times Journal, January 10, 1928, p. 7

121. "Married Women as Teachers O.K." Telegraph Herald, January 10, 1928, p. 11

122. "School Patrol Has Fine Record," Telegraph Herald, June 31, 1955

123. Lyon, Randolph. Safety patrol supervisor at Hoover School for thirty-eight accident-free years

124. "Teachers Will Pass on Union," Telegraph Herald, Oct. 10, 1937, p. 5

125. "Watch Pupils, Schools Urged." Telegraph Herald, September 5, 1940, p. 2

126. "City's Work in Model Plane Building Hailed," Telegraph Herald, June 21, 1942, p. 17

127. "Hundreds Take Job Tests Here," Telegraph Herald, June 14, 1942, p. 18

128. "NEA Appoints 4 Dubuquers," Telegraph-Herald, April 22, 1942, p. 13

129. "Plan Evening Pre-Flight Courses Here," Telegraph-Herald, June 11, 1942, p. 5

130. " 'Emergency Increases' Are Granted by Board," Telegraph-Herald, April 14, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19420414&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

131. "Sign For Next Book Thursday," Telegraph Herald, October 19, 1943, p. 10

132. "School Merger is Considered," Telegraph Herald, September 15, 1946, p. C11

133. "Teachers Gain Dual Security," Telegraph-Herald, December 17, 1946, p. 1

134. "School Books Here Get O.K." Telegraph Herald, September 9, 1947, p. 1

135. Heffron, Hal. "World Events Set Fast Pace for Textbooks," Telegraph Herald, November 27, 1949, p. 1\

136. Day, Mike. "Lessons from the '50s in Dubuque," THonline.com November 18, 2015. Online: http://www.thonline.com/news/tri-state/article_b5672be8-a88f-5e31-ba1b-de318cf73e87.html

137. "Released Time Program to Start October 14," Telegraph-Herald, September 27, 1953, p. 1

138. Galaettli, Herb, "Gospel Gets Wheels," Telegraph-Herald, October 4, 1959, p. 9

139. "Released Time..."

140. Sage, Leland L. A History of Iowa. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1974, p. 331

141. Germanson, Ann. "A Big Step Forward for These Youngsters," Telegraph Herald, November 14, p. 1

142. "250 Teachers Attend B-I-E Day at Dubuque Senior High School," Telegraph Herald, September 1, 1954, p. 1

143. "Centers for Polio Shots Here Named," Telegraph Herald, March 22, 1955, p. 1

144. "Announce 6% Salary Increase for Teachers," Telegraph Herald, April 7, 1955, p. 1

145. "County Public Schools Begin Reorganization," Telegraph Herald, October 6, 1957, p. 4

146. Ibid.

147. "New Teaching Methods Give Meaning to Class Material," Telegraph Herald, Feb. 12, 1957, p. 5

148. "Alert 'Bombs' Miss Dubuque," Telegraph Herald, September 12, 1957, p. 1

149. "The Big Squeeze Is On at Washington," Telegraph Herald, January 27, 1959 p. 14

150. "Local, Area Schools Use News Filmstrips," Telegraph Herald, August 12, 1960, p. 1

151. "City Students Get Code," Telegraph Herald, May 15, 1960, p. 1

152. Shively, Neil. "Iowa's Forced Merger Law 'Toothless Tiger,'" Telegraph Herald, July 16, 1961, p. 1

153. "School Board Okays Merger," Telegraph Herald, July 16, 1961, p. 8

154. "City Teachers Granted Raise," Telegraph Herald, March 20, 1962, p. 1

155. "Chronology," Telegraph Herald, December 31, 1967, p. 18

156. "City School Board Shifts Clark From Chief to New Position," Telegraph Herald, February 11, 1966, p. 1

157. McKeever, Lynn. "Dubuque and the Teacher Shortage," Telegraph Herald, August 28, 1966, p. 4

158. Babcock, Sue. "Wealth Law Gives Schools in City a 'Gift' of $400,000," Telegraph Herald, July 26, 1970, p. 35

159. Ibid.

160. Shamley, Dale. "'Cluster' Grade Schools Are Planned," Telegraph Herald, March 10, 1967, p. 13

161. Swenson, Jim. "For Three Weeks in 1967, Dubuque Senior High Was Not Dubuque Senior High," Telegraph Herald, October 26, 2015, p. 1.

162. "Chronology," p. 18

163. "Board Agrees to Try to Hire Negro Teachers," Telegraph Herald, May 14, 1968, p. 1

164. "Church Council Adopts Budget," Telegraph-Herald, December 1, 1965, p. 7

165. "Released Time Program Renewed, But Will Undergo Evaluation," Telegraph-Herald, July 28, 1969, p. 2

166. "Wessel Tells Problems in School Growth," Telegraph Herald, Mar. 4, 1970, p. 6

167. "School Census Shows Decline," Telegraph Herald, July 30, 1970, p. 1

168. Babcock, Sue. "New School Technique: Cash Reserve," Telegraph Herald, July 30, 1970, p. 29

169. Ibid.

170. Glab, Jim. "School's Out! School's Out!, Telegraph Herald, July 1, 1970, p. 27

171. "Fulfilling Dreams...One Home at a Time," Dubuque Board of Realtors, Inc., May 30, 2013, p. 4

172. Lyon, Randolph W. Fourth grade teacher in 1972 and a member of the outdoor education program

173. Lyon, Randolph W. Author of the Phi Delta Kappa grant and district TAG member

174. Lyon, Randolph W., President of the DEA from 1982-1986, member of the committee which set up collective bargaining in the district, Instructional and Professional Development Committee for the Dubuque Education Association

175. Ibid.

176. Demarest, Dusti. "School Board May Tighten Fund-Raising," Telegraph Herald, April 10, 1984, p. 3

177. Ibid.

178. Lyon

179. Hanson, Lyn. "Kindergarten Intern," Telegraph Herald, September 28, 1991, p. 3A

180. Hanson, Lyn. "Educators to Speak at IASB," Telegraph Herald, October 31, 1991, p. 3A

181. Hanson, Lyn. "School Multicultural Programs Still Deficient," Telegraph Herald, March 22, 1992, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920322&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

182. Hanson, "Kindergarten Intern,"

183. Hanson, Lyn, "Dubuque Public Schools Add Chorus to Curriculum," Telegraph Herald, October 23, 1990, p. 2

184. "After Seventeen Years, It was Time to Let Go and Forgive," Suburban Journals, May 25, 2008, Online: http://www.stltoday.com/suburban-journals/after-years-it-was-time-to-let-go-and-forgive/article_a65ae56d-361b-5c4d-b0ec-46b3e6902f07.html

185. Hanson, Lyn. "Divided Board OKs Prescott Breakfast Plan," Telegraph Herald, April 9, 1991, p. 3A

186. Hanson, Lyn. "Dubuque District to Fight Prejudice," Telegraph Herald, August 20, 1991, p. 3A

187. Dickel, Dean. "Teachers Illustrate Phase III's Success," Telegraph Herald, January 28, 1992, p. 8A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920128&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

188. Hanson, Lyn. "TV Eyed for City Junior High Schools," Telegraph Herald, March 18, 1992, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920318&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

189. Hanson, Lyn. "Cultural Sensitivity Ranks Low," Telegraph Herald, February 27, 1992, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920227&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

190. Krapfl, Mike. "School District Revises Report Cards," Telegraph Herald, August 6, 1992, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920806&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

191. Hanson, Lyn. "Minorities Offered Free Education Plan," Telegraph Herald, April 28, 1992, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920428&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

192. Krapfl, Mike. "Education Grants Won in Dubuque, Monticello," Telegraph Herald, November 17, 1992, p. 1

193. Krapfl, Mike. "School Board Approves Alliance," Telegraph Herald, March 23, 1993, p. 1

194. Krapfl, Mike. "Schools Win Funds for Ideas," Telegraph Herald, October 5, 1993, p. 3

195. Wardenski, Joseph. "Chancellor Klein's Right-Hand Woman: Who is Diana Lam?" Gothamgazette.com. Online: http://www.gothamgazette.com/education/sep.02.shtml

196. Krapfl, Mike. "Black Boxes Aid School Bus Drivers," Telegraph Herald, January 17, 1993, p. 3A

197. Krapfl, Mike. "New System Will Aid District," Telegraph Herald, June 16, 1993, p. 3A

198. Krapfl, Mike. "Marriott Delivers Check to Dubuque School System," Telegraph Herald, July 13, 1993, p. 3A

199. Bergstrom, Kathy. "Wish Lists Go to School," Telegraph Herald, September 11, 1993, p.3A

200. Krapfl, Mike. "School Days," Telegraph Herald," September 22, 1993, p. 2

201. Krapfl, Mike. "Panel Wants Pro-Active Gang Policies," Telegraph Herald, December 1, 1993, p. 3A

202. "School Board: It's Elementary," Telegraph Herald, June 10, 1997, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970610&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

203. Krapfl, Miker. "School Board Gives City OK to Develop Park," Telegraph Herald, October 14, 1997, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19971014&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

204. Krapfl, Mike. "School Considers New Search Guidelines," Telegraph Herald, June 19, 1997, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970619&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

205. Krapfl, Mike."Dubuque Schools Take Back Cafeteria," Telegraph Herald, June 28, 1997, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970628&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

206. Krapfl, Mike. "Schools Turn To Parents For Reading Help," Telegraph Herald, February 25, 1997, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970225&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

207. Krapfl, Mike. "Dubuque Schools to Set Standards," Telegraph Herald, March 15, 1997, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970314&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

208. Krapfl, Mike. "Residents to Have Impact in Schools' Strategic Plan," Telegraph Herald, January 30, 1997, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970130&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

209. Krapfl, Mike. "Tech Plan Nearly Ready," Telegraph Herald, April 15, 1997, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970415&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

210. Krapfl, Mike. "Computer Account Makes Lunch Tickets Obsolete," Telegraph Herald, August 11, 1997, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19970811&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

211. Krapfl, Mike. "Federal Grants to Fund Computers for Schools," Telegraph Herald, October 3, 1997, p. 3A, Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19971003&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

212. Krapfl, Mike. "District Moves Ahead With Expanding Technology," Telegraph Herald, February 24, 1988, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19980224&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

213. Ibid.

214. Krapfl, Mike. "Federal Crew to Look at Teacher Training," Telegraph Herald, February 18, 1988, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19980218&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

215. Krapfl, Mike. "Weighted Grading a Heavy Issue," Telegraph Herald, February 27, 1998, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19980227&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

216. Krapfl, Mike. "Board Spikes Joint School," Telegraph Herald, December 7, 1998, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19980107&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

217. Krapfl, Mike. "Board Approves Learning Standards," Telegraph Herald, April 14, 1998, p. 1. Online. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19980414&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

218. Krapfl, Mike. "Teachers Take Giant Step Down Techno Trail," Telegraph Herald, April 25, 1998, p. 3A. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19980425&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

219. Heldt, Diane. "School, City Join to Make Play More Fun," Telegraph Herald, March 1, 2000, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=20000301&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

220. "Chronology," Telegraph Herald, January 1, 2001, p. 28

221. "Chronology," Telegraph Herald, January 1, 2004, p. 46

222. Ibid. p. 51

223. "Dubuque Senior High School, Dalzell Field Renovation," Online: http://schooldesigns.com/Project-Details.aspx?Project_ID=2720

224. Prescott Elementary School website.

225. Olson, David. "What a Great Day for DCSD Middle Schools and High Schools," Julien's Journal, September 2011, p. 55

226. "Chronology," Telegraph Herald, January 1 2010, p. 29

227. Ibid. p. 42

228. Olson

229. Ibid.

230. Earl, Chris. "Dubuque Board Fires Superintendent," The Gazette, May 30, 2012. Online: http://thegazette.com/2012/05/30/dubuque-board-fires-superintendent/

231. Ibid.

232. "Rheingans Named Dubuque Community School District Superintendent," Online: http://www.dubuque.k12.ia.us/superintendentsearch/

233. Gibson, Michael. "Yesterday and Today," The Golden View, February 2014.

234. Becker, Stacey. "School District Upgrading Technology," Telegraph Herald, Apr. 9, 2013, p. 3A

235. "Every Child|Every Promise," City Focus, Fall, 2014, p. 9

236. Wiedemann, Katie. "Dubuque Schools Revise Proposed 2014-2015 Calendar," KCRG, Feb. 6, 2014

237. Becker, Stacey. "Charter Renewed for Prescott School," Telegraph Herald, Mar. 7, 2014, p. 3A

238. Jacobson, Ben. "New Teachers Learn Along with Students," Telegraph Herald, August 20, 2014, p. 1A

239. Becker, Stacey. "Dubuque Schools Phase Out Paper Time Cards," Telegraph Herald, December 9, p. 3A

240. Jacobson, Ben. "Initiative Seeks to Boost Success of At-Risk Youth," Telegraph Herald, December 11, 2014, p. 1

241. Becker, Stacey. "Extracurricular Help," Telegraph Herald, December 16, 2014, p. 1A

242. Becker, Stacey, "'JFK' Returns for Kennedy Elermentary Event," Telegraph Herald, November 14, 2015, p. 3A

243. Rheingans, Stan. "Dubuque Community School District Continues to 'Unfold Potential,' " Julien's Journal, September 2014, p. 32

244. Becker, Stacey. "Help Wanted," Telegraph Herald, January 25, 2015, p. 1

245. Becker, Stacey. "Principal: Renovations Sorely Needed at Senior," Telegraph Herald, February 12, 2015, p. 1

246. Becker, Stacey. "Pushing Back Against Bullying," Telegraph Herald, March 4, 2015, p. 1

247. "Dubuque Community School District Closes School for First Time Due to Illness," KWWL.com March 14, 2015

248. "‘School Speak’ to Discuss Current State of School Funding, March 14" News-Dubuque Community Schools, Online: http://www.dbqschools.org/news/

249. "Bryant Elementary School Facade to be Rejuvenated Through Donation," News-Dubuque Community Schools, Online: http://www.dbqschools.org/news/

250. "Dubuque Public Schools Report Increase in Graduation Rate," Telegraph Herald, April 2, 2015, p. 3A

251. Becker, Stacey. "Strelo: 'Dubuque Giving Up on My Son,'" Telegraph Herald, May 12, 2015, p. 1

252. Ibid.

253. TH Media Editorial Board, "Our View--A Time to Part, Strelo, School Board," Telegraph Herald, May 15, 2015, p. 4A

254. Jacobson, Ben. "Mental Health 'Crisis' in Schools," THonline: http://www.thonline.com/news/tri-state/article_ca93c5ca-51e9-507d-85cd-34a60cd596fa.html

255. Strelo, Matt. "Shame on Me for Resisting the Status Quo in Our Schools," Telegraph Herald, May 20, 2015, p.4A

256. TH Media Editorial Board, "Our View---Strelo's Response Makes the Case for Resignation," Telegraph Herald, May 20, 2015, p. 4A

257. Hanson, Brad. "My Brother's Keeper Initiative in Dubuque An Early Success," KWWL.com. Online: http://www.kwwl.com/story/29400545/2015/06/24/my-brothers-keeper-initiative-in-dubuque-an-early-success

258. "School District Nets National and State Awards," Telegraph Herald, August 1, 2015, p. 4D

259. Ibid.

260. Ibid.

261. "Americorps Partners in Learning," 365Ink Magazine, Issue #245, p. 16

262. Barton, Thomas A. "Diversity Spawns Push for Equity," Telegraph Herald, September 27, 2015, p. 6A

263. Ibid.

264. Ibid.

265. Ibid.

266. Ibid.

267. Ibid.

268. Ibid.

269. Becker, Stacey. "Senior's Bus-Lane Project 'Pushed Ahead,'" Telegraph Herald, October 13, 2015, p. 3A

270. Becker, Stacey. "Big Step: Dubuque Students Raise Money with Walk-a-Thons Instead of Selling Snacks," Telegraph Herald, October 9, 2015, p. 2A

271. Garbe, William. "Teachable Moment," Telegraph Herald, November 7, 2015, p. 1

272. Becker, Stacey. "Why Don't We Have Consistent High School Mascot Logos?", Telegraph Herald, November 14, 2015, p. 1

273. Becker, Stacey. "Hempstead, Senior Plan Pre-Engineering Classrooms," Telegraph Herald, November 11, 2015, p. 5A

274. Becker, Stacey. "Dubuque Schools Acquire Desks Worth $32,000," Telegraph Herald, November 20, 2015, p. 3A

275. Barton, Thomas J. "Grant Brings Learning Into Locus," Telegraph Herald, December 4, 2015, p. 5A

276. Becker, Stacey. "Students Learn Secrets of Code," Telegraph Herald, December 11, 2015, p. 1A

277. Ibid., p. 2A

278. Becker, Stacey. "Educators Strive to Beat Language Barrier," Telegraph Herald, December 24, 2015, p. 1

279. Ibid., p. 2A

280. Yager, Alicia. "Officials Mull Future of Hillcrest Academy," Telegraph Herald, January 18, 2016, p. 1A

281. Descorbeth, Shirley. "Spring Break Added to Dubuque Community Schools Schedule," KWWL.com. February 9, 2016.

282. Becker, Stacey. "School District Offers Seniors a Pass," Telegraph Herald, February 9, 2016, p. 1

283. Becker, Stacey. "Dubuque School Board Tells Rheingans to Cut $3 Million in Spending," Telegraph Herald, February 23, 2016, p. 1

284. Wiedemann, Katie. "Dubuque School District Administrators Impacted by Budget Crunch," KWWL.com. March 15, 2016 Online: http://www.kcrg.com/content/news/Dubuque-School-District-Administrators-Impacted-by-Budget-Crunch--372169922.html

285. Hinga, Allie. "11 Teaching Positions at Dubuque Schools To Be Cut Next Year," THonline.com. May 9, 2016, Online: http://www.thonline.com/news/dubuque/article_f020c2f6-d428-5757-aa47-425b8589c329.html?sp-tk=25B1E29B91B0BAD8FE7BBE74659872DA0A93EC44FA9FBBE054EC2FF3D0C45F421E36639E1B45A5CB377FA0BA6A78B8DB05BFF85DEDBD34D455388EF010C99DD72CEE00450A04E1DE4C3A14D725E1F2F81096FB2138AACB76942F6C8362A0E11A04C8F5481A37EBB82D03D87930BC4F7FA3D115DC74B46868875DAE7C126B502D3D02888BA6BC1EB675DEE3A66580A43A0964F90D

286. Hanson, Brad. "Dubuque School Board OK's Plans for $30 million Renovation," KWWL.com. May 9, 2016. Online: http://www.kwwl.com/story/31930810/2016/05/09/dubuque-school-board-oks-plans-for-30-million-renovation

287. Montgomery, Jeff. "Senior Renovation Bids Under Budget," Telegraph Herald, June 24, 2016, p. 1

288. Hinga, Allie. "Board OKs Policy on Animals in Classroom," Telegraph Herald, September 13, 2016, p. 3A

289. Hinga, Allie. "Inside Students' Lives, Outside-the-Box Work," Telegraph Herald, December 14, 2016, p. 1

290. "Chronology," Telegraph Herald, January 1, 2017, p. 81

291. Hinga, Allie. "Jefferson Counselor Earns State Accolades," Telegraph Herald, December 12, 2016, p. 1

292. Jacobson, Ben. "Lowest Marks Hit 3 Schools in Dubuque," Telegraph Herald, January 14, 2017

293. Franklin, Vanessa. "Wider Pool, Partnerships in Fast Lane," Telegraph Herald, August 12, 2017, p. 1

294. Descorbeth, Shirley, "Dubuque Community School District Announces Planned Swimming Pool," KWWL.com September 11, 2017, Online: http://www.kwwl.com/story/36340671/2017/9/11/dubuque-community-school-district-announces-planned-swimming-pool-partnership

295. Hinga, Allie. "Relaxing the Mind," Telegraph Herald, September 15, 2017, p. 1A

296. Hinga, Allie. "Senior High Assistant Principal Earns State Accolades," Telegraph Herald, November 3, 2017, p. 5A

297. Hinga, Allie. Taking Credit for Sound Money Matters," Telegraph Herald, February 11, 2018, p. 1

298. Hinga, Allie. "Board Not Renewing Prescott Charter," Telegraph Herald, January 9, 2018, p. 1A

299. Hinga, Allie. "Plans for $6 Million Alta Vista Addition Advance," Telegraph Herald, March 13, 2018, p. 3A

300. Descorbeth, Shirley. "Dubuque Schools Considering Connecting Cameras to City System," KWWL.com Online: http://www.kwwl.com/story/38218578/2018/5/17/dubuque-schools-considering-connecting-cameras-to-city-system

301. Hinga, Allie, "Bids for Alta Vista Campus Project 'Well Within the Range of the Budget,'" Telegraph Herald, July 12, 2018, p. 3A

302. Hinga, Allie, "Insurance for Schools After the Unthinkable," Telegraph Herald, October 28, 2018, p. 1

303. Hinga, Allie, "District Unveils Standards-Based Reports," Telegraph Herald, December 2, 2018, p. 19A

304. Hinga, Allie, "Longer Class Time in the Forecast," Telegraph Herald, February 14, 2019, p. 1

305. Becker, Stacey, "By Leaps and Bounds," Telegraph Herald, April 22, 2012, p. 1A

306. "Dubuque School Leaders Consider Panic-Button App," Telegraph Herald, March 10, 2019, p. 19A

307. Hinga, Allie, "School Board Members Oppose Ward Proposal," Telegraph Herald, July 10, 2019, p. 1A

308. Hinga, Allie, "Partnership Could Save District More Than $1 Million," Telegraph Herald, August 13, 2019,, p. 3A

309. Hinga, Allie, "District Officials Tour Alta Vista Campus," Telegraph Herald, October 8, 2019, p. 3A

310. Hinga, Allie, "Dubuque Enrollment Dips; Staffing Up 10% Over Past Ten Years," Telegraph Herald, December 29, 2019, p. 1A

311. Hinga, Allie, "Dubuque Community Schools Push Toward Free ACT, Other Testing," Telegraph Herald, February 25, 2020, p. 3A

312. "Food Resources: Dubuque Community School District, Online: https://www.dbqschools.org/coronavirus-information/food-resources/

313. Ibid.

314. Hinga, Allie, "District Looks to Help At-Risk Students," Telegraph Herald, March 23, 2020, p. 3A

315. Hinga, Allie, "Local Districts Mull Online Learning Options During Iowa's Extended School Shutdown," Telegraph Herald, April 4, 2020, p. 1A

316. "Two Local Districts Named Best Communities for Music Education," Telegraph Herald, May 30, p. 6A

317. Hinga, Allie,"Schools: Participation 'Pretty Steady," Telegraph Herald, May 29, 2020, p. 1A

318. Hinga, Allie, "Screen Play: School Officials Eye Nearly 2,000 Laptops, Tablets," Telegraph Herald, June 6, 2020, p. 1A

319. Mehl, Annie, "School Board OKs Early Start Next Year," Telegraph Herald, June 9, 2020, p. 1A

320. Goldstein, Bennet, "District Unveils Plans for 2nd Senior High Renovation," Telegraph Herald, June 25, 2020, p. 1A

321. Pitt, David, "Iowa School Reopening Plan Doesn't Require Masks, Distancing," US News and Reports, Online: https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/iowa/articles/2020-06-25/iowa-school-reopening-plan-doesnt-require-masks-distancing

322. Hinga, Allie, "Rheingans: Local Plan Meets Reynolds' Guidelines," Telegraph Herald, July 18, 2020, p. 1A

323. Hinga, Allie, "22% of Area Families Opt for Remote Learning," Telegraph Herald, August 4, 2020, p. 1A

324. Hinga, Allie, "Rheingans: Move School Start Date to August 24th," Telegraph Herald, August 5, 2020, p. 1A

325. Barton, Thomas J. "Council: Mask Up, Dubuque," Telegraph Herald, August 7, 2020, p. 1A

326. Hinga, Allie, "Petition Seeks Fully Virtual School Start," Telegraph Herald, August 13, 2020, p. 1A

327. Montgomery, Jeff, "Error Leads State to Report Lower Positivity Rates," Telegraph Herald, August 18, 2020, p. 1A

328. Hinga, Allie, "Programs Provide Meals for Kids Learning Remotely," Telegraph Herald, August 31, 2020, p. 1A

329. Hinga, Allie, "35% of Low-Income Students Online," Telegraph Herald, September 14, 2020, p. 1A

330. Hinga, Allie, "County's Positivity Rate Adds to Schools' Risk," Telegraph Herald, September 10, 2020, p. 1A

331. "Dubuque COVID-19 Cases Spike by 115," Telegraph Herald, September 19, 2020, p. 3A

332. Hinga, Allie, "Enrollment Declines in Dubuque," Telegraph Herald, October 22, 2020, p. 1A

333. Hinga, Allie, "Foundation Helps Schools Help Students," Telegraph Herald, October 23, 2020, p. 1A

334. Hinga, Allie, "Laptop Shortage Means Dubuque School District Still Waiting on 1,200," Telegraph Herald, October 27, 2020, p. 3A

335. Hinga, Allie, "Schools Strive to Stay Connected With Parents," Telegraph Herald, October 30, 2020, p. 1A

336. Hinga, Allie, "Dubuque Public Schools to Go Virtual Temporarily," Telegraph Herald, November 20, 2020, p. 1A

337. Hinga, Allie, "Diversity Sought in Talented, Gifted Classes," Telegraph Herald, November 29, 2020, p. 11A

338. Lyon, Randolph, former teacher and Hoover Elementary School, member of the first talented and gifted education committee in the Dubuque Community School District, and twice in attendance to programs given by Dr. Sato

339. Mehl, Annie, "Virus Adds Obstacles to Those With Hearing Loss," Telegraph Herald, November 29, 2020, p. 1A

340. Hinga, Allie, "School District Charting Course Blueprints," Telegraph Herald, November 30, 2020, p. 3A

341. "Dubuque Schools' Initiative Aims to Boost College, Career Readiness," Telegraph Herald, January 7, 2021, p. 3A

342. Hinga, Allie, "Return to School? Not Just Yet," Telegraph Herald, January 12, 2021, p. 1A

343. "Coronavirus," KWWL.com, January 14, 2021

344. Hinga, Allie, "Absenteeism Escalates in Dubuque Schools," Telegraph Herald, April 11, 2021, p. 1A

345. Hinga, Allie, "School Leaders Making Plans for Federal Funds," Telegraph Herald, April 25, 2021, p. 1A

346. "Dubuque Schools Recognized for Music Education Efforts," Telegraph Herald, May 5, 2021, p. 12A

347. Hinga, Allie, "School Board Welcomes Back Barton," Telegraph Herald, May 11, 2021, p. 2A

348. Hinga, Allie, "Dubuque Extends Online Learning," Telegraph Herald, May 25, 2021, p. 1A

349. Hinga, Allie, "Dubuque to Add Teachers to Help Kids Catch Up," Telegraph Herald, June 20, 2021, p. 1A

350. "New Equity Director Selected for Dubuque Schools," Telegraph Herald, June 12, 2001, p. 13A

351. Fisher, Benjamin, "Conservation Board, Schools to Share Naturalist," Telegraph Herald, June 24, 2021, p. 2A

352. Hinga, Allie, "Virtual Learning Option Continues Amid Pandemic," Telegraph Herald, August 29, 2021, p. 3A

353. Hinga, Allie, "Schools to Offer COVID-19 Test Kits," Telegraph Herald, October 7, 2021, p. 1A

354. "Dubuque's Hempstead Reports 24 COVID-19 Cases This Week," Telegraph Herald, October 9, 2021, p. 2A

355. Hinga, Allie, "School Board Sets Mask Threshold," Telegraph Herald, October 12, 2021, p. 1A

356. "Dubuque Community School Initiative Connects Students to Meaningful Workplace Experiences," DubuqueToday, Oct. 23, 2021, Online: https://dubuquetoday.com/

357. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "Summer Academy Aims to Boost Dubuque Students' Literacy Skills," Telegraph Herald, July 8 2022, p. 2A

358. Garrett, Olivia, "Carver Tech Coach Honored by State," Telegraph Herald, February 2, 2022, p. 1A

359. "STEM Teacher Award," Online: https://neiowastem.com/stem-education-award

360. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "District Seeks OK for Online Option," Telegraph Herald, February 15, 2022, p. 1A

361. Reese, Kayli, "School Board OKs $500 Employee Retention Bonuses," Telegraph Herald, March 2, 2022, p. 1A

362. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "Local Schools Prioritize Plan for Suicide Prevention," Telegraph Herald, March 20, 2022, p. 1A

363. "District Mulls Middle Schools," Telegraph Herald "Tri-State Week in Review," September 25, 2022, p. 10A

364. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "Pet Project: Therapy Dogs Roam Local Schools," Telegraph Herald, October 29, 2022, p. 1A

365. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "Where are the Students?" Telegraph Herald, November 20, 2022, p. 1A

366. Reese, Kayli, "County Safety Committee Unveils School Radio Project," Telegraph Herald, December 4, 2022, p. 1A

367. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "Area Schools Look to Boost Computer Science Program," Telegraph Herald, December 23, 2022, p. 1A

368. Brainard, Ryan, "Dubuque Schools Committee Suggests Banning Three Books from Curriculum," KHAK. Online: https://khak.com/dubuque-schools-committee-suggests-banning-3-books-from-classes/ May 16, 2022

369. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "Board Tours Future Preschool," Telegraph Herald, December 7, 2023, p. 1A

370. Kelsey, Elizabeth, "Local Education Officials Raise Concerns Over Changes to AEAs," Telegraph Herald, January 14, 2024, p. 1A