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Encyclopedia Dubuque

www.encyclopediadubuque.org

"Encyclopedia Dubuque is the online authority for all things Dubuque, written by the people who know the city best.”
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Affiliated with the Local History Network of the State Historical Society of Iowa, and the Iowa Museum Association.




INTEGRATION

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INTEGRATION. In his landmark study of racism in Dubuque, Associate Professor of sociology Mohammad Chaichian found that Dubuque began as a diverse community, but gradually became more homogeneous. The number of Jews in Dubuque declined from around 700 in 1895 to less than fifty families in 1940, although there appeared to be no complaints of mistreatment. (1) Other groups did not have the same history.

The struggles integrating different cultures into the social fabric of Dubuque have often focused on AFRICAN AMERICANS. Other groups, however, faced their time of discrimination including the IRISH and the handicapped. The effort to force Chinese workers out of San Francisco led many to move to New York in the 1870s. Aleck Cameron, a former Iowan, introduced Chinese labor into Colorado Territory to work in mining. With "domestic" labor, he averaged between $800 and $2,000 per week. With "celestial importations," he realized an average yield of $1,500 each week. This did not impress an editorial writer for the Dubuque Herald who wrote in August, 1873:

                We are willing the territories should possess all these Confusian
                followers, we have no room for them in Iowa, we have a sufficient
                infliction in the prevailing black element without importing those
                whose tails hang down from the back of their heads.
                With an admirably conducted steam laundry Dubuque can dispense with
                the "washee, washee," which greet the ears of all followers of Christ
                who are obligated to pass the Chinese laundries on Wabash Avenue,
                Chicago... (2)

A callous attitude toward people of different heritages was directed toward the Chinese as shown in this article from the Dubuque Herald on December 23, 1875:

               Three "pig-tailed" Chinamen were the observed of the observers
               yesterday on the street. Their long braids were the envy of
               many a woman, who wanted a twist of natural hair to adorn her
               cranium. The event of these Celestials opens up the consumption
               of ten pounds of rice and a dozen rats per day. (3)

In 1876, the Dubuque Herald carried the following description of carrying on a conversation with two local Chinese.

               Have you talked with Chang Lee and Tong Swung, two celestial
               gents who crave citizenship in the Key City of Iowa?...They,
               for instance, say "wash-ee" for wash, "velle" for very, and
               "hun-ta" for hundred and so on. They speak in a manner as if
               they swallowed something between every two syllables. (4)

A similar tendency to focus on language appeared in 1890 with the announcement that "three Chinamen" left for San Francisco last year and news had been received that one had later met his "Joss." (5)

Native Americans were not excluded from discrimination despite the fact that most had been removed from eastern Iowa. In 1877 recounting the business trip of John THOMPSON to the Sioux, the Dubuque Herald used "noble sons of the forest" and "brick colored humans."(6)

Callousness extended even to gender. In 1876 the Dubuque Herald reported on a group of women who, noticing a fire on Eagle Point Avenue, formed an "Amazon fire department" (Note: late called an "Amazon bucket company") and "went for that Heathen Chinese." (7)

Despite these examples of bigotry and callousness, efforts were being as early as 1877 to interest Dubuque residents in the culture and history of China. In February the DUBUQUE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION sponsored Chinese lecturer Wong Ching Foo who spoke at the Congregational church. (8) On February 21, 1877 the Dubuque Herald in reporting that every ticket had been sold for the lecture made quite a statement for the times regarding the importance of attending:

                 None should fail to attend the lecture of Wong Ching Foo
                 at the Congregational church tonight. China and her people
                 are now matters of even vital interest to Americans. The
                 Chinaman, as well as the Indian and the negro, is destined
                 to mingle his blood more or less with the Yankee. It is 
                 not, therefore, either uninteresting or unimportant to
                 inquire into his condition. (9)

Wong Ching Foo was such a popular speaker that he was hired to return to Dubuque in March 1877 to lecture at the ATHENAEUM. (10)

By 1912 a shift in tone could be detected editorially. In speaking of employment history in the United States, a Dubuque Herald writer remarked that Chinese were more desired as workingmen "than most of the coarse crew crowding in every year at eastern ports." It was their "skill, intelligence, hardy power of labor and driving knack at succeeding...that made the Chinese feared." It was fear that Chinese could replace white workers that led them to being feared. (11)

In July 1890, the Dubuque Daily Herald reported on three "dagoes" named Rosso who occupied the Farrell Building on Iowa Street. Merchants of bananas, oranges and lemons, these men disappeared after swindling M. M. WALKER COMPANY of $400.00 and three different jewelry stores of watches they promised to buy. (12) "Dagos" were also the subject of an article in the Dubuque Daily Herald on August 11, 1892. Entitled "No Dagoes Need Apply," the article related the efforts of the superintendent of street paving on Main to hire Germans and Swedes in Chicago. The article related that Superintendent Nevins said "he had never employed a Dago on any work and would not have them around." (13)

Despite such activity, gatherings of blacks and whites occurred around such events as Emancipation Day when gatherings of races occurred without incident.

On May 4, 1990, the Dubuque Human Rights Commission asked a broad-based community group to develop a plan and timetable for bringing one hundred minority families to Dubuque by 1995. The proposal was part of a plan developed by the Commission's three-member Race Relations Community Action Exploratory Committee. The Commission assembled a list of fifty-five individuals to be invited to serve on the ad hoc committee.

The names of the integration task force members were released in October 1990. Participants included Kenneth GEARHART, Terry Lambert, Jan Bleacher, Doug Henry, Sister Nona Meyerhofer, Ted Blanchard, Katie Mulholland, Gwen Nilles, Randy Peck, Dale Repass, Dave Roberts, Marcia Sola, Rev. Msgr. Neil Tobin, Claudette Carter Thomas, and Gail WEITZ.

The publication of the U. S. Census showed that of Iowa's top ten largest cities, Dubuque "is whitest city." Of every 100 citizens, 98 were white with the city's entire black population being 331 or one-half of one percent of the city's total population. In comparison, the black population in Cedar Rapids was 2.9%, 7.8% in Davenport, 13.1% in Waterloo and 0.8% in Council Bluffs. (14)

Diversity was the focus of Catholic Schools Week in January 1991. Under the theme "Catholic Schools: A Kaleidoscope of People," the week was intended to show how Catholic schools served people from a variety of religious, ethnic, and socio-economic groups. (15)

The integration task force on February 5, 1991 unveiled its nine-page proposed integration plan, "We Want to Change," at the Mound in Sinsinawa, Wisconsin. (16) The document called for the "recruitment of present employers to commit to hiring minorities between 1991 and 1995. In addition new businesses would be called upon to "broaden the base for minority employment, and the recruitment and relocation of families of color." To help minority recruitment and hiring, a resource network of "persons of various colors, locally, regionally and nationally" would be established. Local colleges, universities, and seminaries would attempt to track potential employees from their graduates. A new city post would be assigned by the city manager's office "preferably to a minority person." This individual would coordinate the efforts of the human rights commission, task force, and "the many community volunteers" the plan envisioned. (17)

Incorporation would include measures focused on stabilization, adaptation, education and conflict resolution. Once minority families were recruited, employment and housing "must be maintained" to retain those families. As an initial step, a "comprehensive directory must be developed identifying people of color presently in Dubuque and those people, firms, and corporations supporting the goals of the project. A minority social "forum" was to be established to "maintain a mutually supportive environment, to facilitate cross-cultural learning, to identify and observe common needs, to share information of mutual interest and to resolve grievances. A minority housing assistance system and an "alternative dispute resolution system" was to be established to resolve disputes that could develop in the process of minority incorporation and retention. The social forum and dispute resolution system would be "officiated" by trained multi-cultural volunteers. (18)

Education was seen as an important "force in the struggle to eliminate racism." The plan called for multi-cultural, non-sexist education in schools to be expanded. More minority teachers were to be hired and the minority forum would serve as a link between the schools and people of color. (19)

On February 25, 1991, a meeting at WAHLERT CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL, was held for members of the community to examine the plan and offer suggestions. An estimated 30-35 people, task force members and non-members, attended. (20) Questions were asked, for example, about how "a core group of employers" would asked other city employers to commit to hiring minority employees between 1991-1992. Some concern was shown with the plan rarely used the word "racism" and instead used "problems" or "weaknesses." The suggestion of preparing the community for the new residents was also made. (21) Copies of the plan were made available to the public at the Human Rights office at the DUBUQUE CITY HALL. In April 1991 the Dubuque Human Rights Commission unanimously accepted "We Want To Change," the task force's nine-page proposal.

The plan addressed such factors needed to attract and retain minorities to Dubuque as housing, social services, and community education. The need for a minority coordinator to work with government officials, businesses and community groups was stated. Commissioners Ruby SUTTON and Steve Racks worked with the task force in preparing a presentation of the plan to the city council.

In May 1991 following the Dubuque City Council's 6-1 vote approving the task force report, City Manager Gearhart was directed to develop methods for carrying out the program. The task force then reorganized itself into the following committees: finances; housing; recruitment of employers, new businesses and minority families; education and public relations; and incorporation/ retention of families. Community members were then given the opportunity to serve on one of the committees. An eight-member executive committee coordinated the project.

Activist Julian Bond was scheduled as the keynote speaker at a city-sponsored race relations conference on May 4, 1991. Topics at the conference at FIVE FLAGS CIVIC CENTER were to include raising non-racist children, education issues, affirmative action, race and religion, race and poverty and hate crimes. Sponsors of the conference included the DUBUQUE AREA LABOR-MANAGEMENT COUNCIL, DUBUQUE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT, Tri-College Program, Department of Human Services, DUBUQUE AREA CHRISTIANS UNITED, Dubuque Deanery, local chapter of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE (N.A.A.C.P.) and the YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION (Y.W.C.A.). (22)

In October 1991, Dubuque's Constructive Integration Task Force was officially incorporated as a non-profit organization. In this capacity the group could solicit private donations and matching grant money from private and federal sources. Money received was to be used to implement the integration program.

In reaction to the work of the task force and the issue of encouraging minorities to come to the city, Dubuque was the scene of cross-burnings. One incident occurred in FLORA PARK across the street from IRVING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL that had Dr. Jerome Greer, the first African American principal in the DUBUQUE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT. On October 23, 1991, police were called to DUBUQUE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL to restore order after fighting, called racially based, broke out and four blacks were arrested. (23)

The conflict at Senior and community reaction to the Constructive Integration Task Force led an estimated forty people including Task Force members to gather on the evening of October 23rd in an effort to prevent violence. Calls for police and school officials to have more training in dealing with racial issues were made. One Task Force member said the incidents at Senior could provide the city a "teachable moment" that could help improve the city's racial climate. (24)

The following day, October 24th, uniformed police patrolled the school and students were only allowed to use two entrances to the building. A walkout of some students occurred protesting perceived unequal treatment of whites and minorities and others the unfair reputation Senior had acquired for racism. Part of this was due to the involvement of two former students in cross-burnings in the community. (25) Some interest was shown in forming a local branch of the N.A.A.W.P. (National Association for the Advancement of White People). Student reaction included the belief that much of the problem was being caused by a few people, confusion about the constructive integration effort, and the feeling that minority students were treated with "kid gloves." Senior High at the time had forty minority students in a school with 1,500 pupils. (26)

Except for two Asian and two Hispanic teachers, the DUBUQUE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT had no minority employees in 1989-1990. In October, 1990 an affirmative action plan was adopted. A proposed goal of hiring women and minorities to fill four administrative and management positions by 1992, however, was called unrealistic. That time table was delayed to 1993. The affirmative action plan also called for efforts to hire qualified women, racial minorities and disabled people for other school positions. Katie Mulholland, the district's staff development coordinator, stated that the goals of the plan represented a standard the district should try to attain and was not a hiring quota.

In 1990 another form of integration occurred with much more success in Dubuque. Responding to Federal law requiring that students be educated in the "least restrictive environment," EISENHOWER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL merged with the adjacent Helen Keller School. The traditional classroom integrated students having severe and profound learning difficulties who continued to have their own classroom for some classroom and playground activities; school assemblies, and during lunch. In 1991 the integration expanded to STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD HIGH SCHOOL. (27)

Iowa Department of Education personnel annually visited thirty-two schools in Iowa to evaluate determine compliance with the state's multi-cultural guidelines. In 1991 during their visit to Dubuque, the team found problems similar to other districts in Iowa. Students with disabilities were not sufficiently integrated into the schools. Some classes tended to be dominated by students of one sex--females in office education and males in computer classes. Minorities were under-represented in vocational programs and advanced classes. (28)

In November and December 1991, the cross burnings and acts of vandalism resulted in Dubuque being the subject of numerous national television and radio programs and newspaper articles. On November 21, 1991, Thomas Hunt, national coordinator of the Guardian Angels, and twelve members from chapters in Chicago, New York and Indianapolis arrived in Dubuque. The group spoke to students at HOOVER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, patrolled several streets, and made appearances at a rally in WASHINGTON PARK and an ecumenical Thanksgiving service at CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY on November 27,1991. This same event was attended by Iowa Governor Terry Branstad, State Representative Thomas J. JOCHUM and State Senator Joseph J. WELSH. Virginia Governor L. Douglas Wilder, the only African American candidate for the 1991 Democratic presidential nomination, came to Dubuque on November 24 to attend church services with Ms. Alice Scott and her family. Scott's home had been vandalized on November 12 when a piece of concrete block was thrown through a window.

Change continues to meet resistance. Photo courtesy: Bob Reding
November was also a month of rallies. On November 23 an estimated two hundred people braved cold and snow to march from 15th and Main STREETS to TOWN CLOCK PLAZA to protest the racial incidents. The event had been arranged by a group called the Active Students Against Prejudice. The following day several hundred Dubuque residents met at Washington Park for a rally against hate crimes and prejudice. On November 30,1991, Rev. Thomas Robb, the national director of the KU KLUX KLAN arrived in Dubuque and spoke to a rally attended by an estimated two hundred people in front of the DUBUQUE CITY HALL. Members of the Dubuque chapter N.A.A.C.P. staged a counter rally estimated to include two hundred people in Washington Park.

The Bible, several study guides, and a copy of the proposed Constructive Integration Plan made up the unusual components a program known as the Lenten project in January 1992. Loras and Clarke colleges and Wartburg and the University of Dubuque theological seminaries were involved in writing the curriculum aimed at getting "the people of the city of Dubuque to think creatively about inclusiveness in church and society and the integration plan." Grants to write the study guides came from the John Knox Presbytery and Dubuque Area Christians United. The study guides were designed to be used in a Sunday school class, church Bible study, or in home meetings. Themes of slavery, liberation, human desire for a home land, the way women and men treat each other and the way Christians treat people of other faiths were addressed. (29)

On January 18, 1992 the Nationalist Movement of Mississippi, a white supremacist group, scheduled its Majority Rights and Freedom Parade and Rally in Dubuque. While "not necessarily" a direct response to the event, Tom CHURCHILL and his anti-racism organization CURE chose to hold a Martin Luther King birthday party at ALLISON-HENDERSON PARK. The local chapter of the N.A.A.C.P. endorsed the party although it had chosen to postpone plans to celebrate King's birthday because of the supremacist rally. Churchill said there were no plans to protest the rally. "They will have all the attention they deserve. They will be ignored." (30)

The mission statement of the new twelve member Dubuque Council for Diversity was approved in April 1992 by the Dubuque Human Rights Commission, although concern was voiced that the private diversity group did not have to hold public meetings. (31) Ruby SUTTON, a member of the Commission, stated that closed meetings might prevent the kind of publicity that greeted the original Constructive Integration Task Force's nine-page "We Want to Change" document. "The reason for the closed meetings of the council is that they want to go forward. A lot of outside criticism tends to delay you." (32)

At the request of the Iowa Advisory Commission's representative in Cedar Rapids, the Iowa branch of the U. S. Civil Rights Commission was scheduled to hold a meeting in Dubuque in late April, 1992 to investigate racism in the city. Dubuque residents; federal, state, county, and city officials; as well as representatives of business, labor, community-based organizations and the religious communities were scheduled to participate. It was anticipated that the meeting would be looking for background information on how the Dubuque Human Rights Commission got activated on race relations and how the Constructive Integration Plan was developed. (33)

On May 29, 1992 the Ku Klux Klan held a rally at WASHINGTON PARK. Fights broke out at Bluff and Locust and two were arrested. The event in Dubuque and another in Janesville, Wisconsin was the beginning of a chain of similar activities scheduled by the Klan for California, Colorado, Oregon, Texas and Washington. (34) On June 29, 1992 an Epworth teenager was ordered to attend a Job Corps training program for assaulting a Ku Klux Klan supporter after the rally.

A meeting of Dubuque's racial harmony groups was held on July 16, 1992 with a U. S. Department of Justice official concerning the manner in which the police handled the May 29th rally. According to the Telegraph Herald, no one there knew who called or was running the meeting. The Justice official present put a "chill on the chat" by questioning at the start of the session what should or should not be discussed in public. At the end of the meeting, the official encouraged members of the [[NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE (N.A.A.C.P.) and CURE to work together on proposals they were planning to present to the city. Both groups had plans for a citizens' advisory group to the police department. (35)

In June of 1992 PORTRAITS OF DUBUQUE, a collection of pastel paintings depicting about eighty Dubuque residents who had worked for peace by helping others or offering encouragement, was displayed in the DUBUQUE MUSEUM OF ART. (36)

Attempts to recruit minority teachers to Dubuque public schools brought the district together with the private colleges in 1992 in the Minority teacher Corps program. Through this cooperative project, and black, Asian, Hispanic, or Native American teacher in the district could apply to earn a free master's degree from the Dubuque Tri-College Department of Education. Half of the cost of the degree would be waived once they were given a graduate assistantship at one of the three colleges. The other half of the tuition would be paid through the district's Phase III professional development program. The student could only apply for this reimbursement if their graduate program related to teaching. The teacher would take most of the course work during the summer and complete the degree in three years. (37)

The city's Multicultural/Non-Sexist Community Advisory Committee reported to the school board in May, 1993. It congratulated the district on its accomplishments citing especially the multicultural and non-sexist program training for every teacher. (38)

Clarke College investigated its own commitment to multi-culturalism in 1993. A University of Iowa consultant spoke with Clarke students in 1991 and 1993. In late August 1993 faculty members met with the Johnnie Sims of the University of Iowa's office of student support services and Sister Virginia Spiegel, a Clarke assistant professor of psychology and chairperson of the school's multicultural committee. Recommendations to improve the school's climate included hiring a minority student advisor, develop more classes with multicultural elements, budget for a mentor program and increase the number of minority students on campus. (39)

In 1993 a protest of the city budget by Metropolitan Organizing Projects, an organization created by Karen O'ROURKE, to the state appeals board resulted in a $400,000 cut to the city budget. As a means of reducing the budget, the city considered cutting the position of human relations specialist. The idea was short-lived when civil rights activists suggested the human rights department would be weakened and city solicitor Bill Blum said the action could endanger the city' standing with the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The city instead chose to hire Elizabeth Creger to investigate civil rights complaints. She had interned with the city in 1991 and helped revise the city's fair housing ordinance. (40)

During the summer of 1993, the City of Dubuque trained landlord "testers" to see whether they were practicing housing discrimination. Claiming that the program was not entrapment, city officials said testing protected landlords from unfair discrimination charges. An individual would only be tested after a complaint had been received. State officials, however, randomly tested landlords. Landlords found guilty of discrimination faced fines between $10,000 and $50,000 for each violation based on the number of previous violations. (41)

The results of a landmark study of racism in Dubuque were announced in June 1994. Associate professor of sociology Mohammad Chaichian's five year research indicated that racial, ethnic, and class strife tended to be the strongest in times of economic trouble. It was true when KU KLUX KLAN attacked the city's Catholics for "taking over the city." It was as true in the 1980s with cross burnings and racist graffiti. It was not the older workers, but the younger who saw no future in their community and fixed their blame on a small group of African Americans. (42)

The year 1994 was designated a year of "neighborhood reinvestment" in Dubuque. In April, the Dubuque Council for Diversity's "Youth Quake," a high school group, volunteers from "Learning Tree," a Operation New View program, with citizens from different neighborhoods cleaned up Thomas Place, in the city's North End. Landfill costs were paid by the city and several businesses provided food or equipment. It was hoped this would inspire similar activities in other areas of the city. (43)

In April 1994 organizers of the "Bend in the River: A New Vision" changed their format from the previous year from speakers to two town meetings to encourage participation. Later about thirty participants met to discuss action steps developed at the meetings and make recommendations to the Human Relations Steering Committee. The Committee would contact other identified groups and persuade them to act. The following action steps were developed: (44)

     1. continual support for youth summer basketball leagues with the inclusion
        of education and job counseling,
     2. every major local organization should establish a committee to deal with
        equity issues,
     3. seek continual support from schools expanding education opportunities for
        all children,
     4. continue support for the human relations conference
     5. the city bus system should be retained and made affordable to all riders,
     6. encourage the formation of neighborhood groups and conduct town meetings,
     7. establish an anti-violence safety workshop to include hate group education,
        family violence and neighborhood safety strategies
     8. park and recreation departments should provide training on multi-cultural
        issues
     9. expand Project Concern's services to the elderly and other populations

The City of Dubuque and the DUBUQUE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT initiated programs to increase racial and handicap sensitivity. The City developed an Intercultural Competency Initiative. In 2006 a three-year contract with One Ummah Consulting had as its goals promoting community understanding and education, encouraging a more diverse workforce, identifying tools residents could use to resolve conflict, and support for a community that valued all residents. Portions of the training were implemented with school district employees and CLARKE COLLEGE students.

The Diverse Dubuque website was opened in February 2008. This was intended to keep the community updated on the City's intercultural competency initiative as well as cultural events happening in the community and resources that might be helpful to others. The TIPS subcommittee published intercultural community building tips in the employee newsletter every two weeks and arranged for management team training tips every month. City departments also prioritized brochures and forms that were most commonly used by the public for translation into Spanish.

In 2009 community partners promoting an inclusive community included Faces and Voices which sponsored the annual Dr. Martin Luther King Tribute Days and a biennial Human Relations conference. Project Hope was designed to help unemployed and under-employed residents who were disadvantaged because of social, cultural or educational barriers. Step by Step, a non-profit organization, encouraged sustainable projects created by and for people with disabilities. Proudly Accessible Dubuque worked to provide accessibility to everyone and awareness of accessibility issues to businesses. Bi-lingual signage located at points of interest, public facilities and on-street sites was developed in English and Spanish. The Every Child, Every Promise initiative provided every child with Five Promises: caring adults, safe places, a healthy start, effective education, and opportunities to serve.

Northeast Iowa Community College announced in May 2016 that it would start offering gap funding in the fall to lower the costs of those taking classes to become emergency medical technicians. The plan was part of an effort to recruit a more diverse workforce for the all-white Dubuque Fire Department. In 2016 the fire department included four women and eighty-five males. Nationwide, fire departments were 82 percent white, 7.7 percent black and 9.5 percent Hispanic or Latino. Financial assistance from NICC would be available to all applicants based on need, not race or ethnicity. (45)

On June 1, 2016 a public forum initiated by 4 THE PEOPLE INC. and the Dubuque Human Rights Commission and joined by representatives of the U. S. Department of Justice was scheduled in Dubuque to help improve race relations. This is after two burned crosses were found in April at the intersection of Washington and East 22nd Streets. The purpose of the forum is to improve understanding of local and federal hate crime responses. (46)

See: DUBUQUE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT

    AFRICAN AMERICANS
    DUBUQUE POLICE DEPARTMENT

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Source:

1. Jerde, Lyn, "Dubuque Study: Racism Like to Economy," Telegraph Herald, June 8, 1994, p. 5

2. "The Heathen Chinese," The Daily Herald, August 13, 1873, p. 1

3. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, December 23, 1875, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18751223&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

4. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, January 20, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18760120&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

5. "News in Brief," Dubuque Daily Herald, September 24, 1890, p. 4

6. "The Noble Red Man," Dubuque Herald, August 14, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770814&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

7. "In Ruins," Dubuque Herald, November 11, 1876, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18761111&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

8. "An Extra Lecture," Dubuque Herald, February 20, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770220&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

9. "The Country of Chaung Lee," Dubuque Herald, February 21, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770221&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

10. "Caught on the Fly," Dubuque Herald, March 16, 1877, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=uh8FjILnQOkC&dat=18770316&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

11. "Governor Wilson and the Chinese," Dubuque Herald, February 5, 1912 p. 7

12. "Three Dagos Skip Town," Dubuque Daily Herald, July 22, 1890, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18900722&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

13. "No Dagoes Need Apply," Dubuque Daily Herald, August 11, 1892, p. 4. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=_OG5zn83XeQC&dat=18920811&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

14. Hanson, Lyn. "Of Iowa's Top 10, Dubuque is Whitest City," Telegraph Herald, February 15, 1991, p. 1

15. Hanson, Lyn. "Diversity Focus of Catholic Schools Week," Telegraph Herald, January 25, 1991, p. 3A.

16. Arnold, Bill. "Residents at Meeting Applaud Task Force," Telegraph Herald, February 26, 1991, p. 3A

17. Arnold, Bill. "Minority Plan Drafted," Telegraph Herald, February 6, 1991, p. 3A

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. Hanson

21. Ibid.

22. Gilson, Donna. "Activist Julian Bond to Speak in Dubuque," Telegraph Herald, March 4, 1991, p. 2.

23. Hanson, Lyn. "Racial Incidents Prompt Concern," Telegraph Herald, October 24, 1991, p. 1

24. Arnold, Bill. "Task Force 'Cloud' Bursts," Telegraph Herald, October 24, 1991, p. 1

25. Hanson, Lyn. "Seniors Mitchell Copes With Tension," Telegraph Herald, October 25, 1991, p. 1

26. Hanson, Lyn. "Students Discuss Racial Tension in School," Telegraph Herald, October 24, 1991, p. 4A

27. Hanson, Lyn. "Integration," Telegraph Herald, August 18, 1991, p. 1

28. Interview with Marty O'Shea. April 27, 2016

29. Hanson, Lynn. "Lenten Study Reflects Local Race Issues," Telegraph Herald, January 2, 1992, p. 1

30. "CURE Party for King Saturday," Telegraph Herald, January 12, 1992, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920112&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

31. Hanson, Lyn. "School Multicultural Programs Still Deficient," Telegraph Herald, March 22, 1992, p. 3A. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920322&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

32. Arnold, Bill. "Commission OKs Diversity Plan," Telegraph Herald, April 14, 1992, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920414&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

33. Bullers, Finn. "KKK Rally Aftermath," Telegraph Herald, June 1, 1992, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920601&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

34. Webber, Steve. "Federal Rights Analyst Sets Dubuque Meetings," Telegraph Herald, April 14, 1992, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920414&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

35. Bagsarian, Tom. "KKK Rally Probe," Telegraph Herald, July 17, 1992, p. 1. Online: https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=aEyKTaVlRPYC&dat=19920717&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

36. Lamphier-Hoffert, Denise. ""Portraits Exhibit of Good Will," Telegraph Herald, June 26, 1992, p. 10A

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