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DIAMOND JO LINE

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Advertisement from Dubuque Trade Journal September 20, 1882. Photo Courtesy: Bob Reding
Official stationery of the Diamond Jo Line.
DIAMOND JO LINE. In December 1977, the former Diamond Jo Boat Store and Office, now property of Inland Molasses Company at Jones and Terminal STREETS, was added to the NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES. The building, which once had an office at the end facing the river and a steamboat warehouse behind it, is the only remaining building in Dubuque traceable to one of America's great steamboat companies.
The familiar Diamond Jo sign on the steamboat Quincy. Photo courtesy: Bob Reding

The company was named for Joseph "Diamond Jo" REYNOLDS, a prosperous businessman who made fortunes in milling, tanning, RAILROADS, MINING, and shipping. In 1855 he and his wife, Mary E. (Morton), moved to Chicago, where he established a tannery. Customarily, he supplied his business with hides and furs by touring Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Originally, he addressed his shipments to himself as J. Reynolds. But when he discovered that Chicago had another J. Reynolds, he developed his distinctive trademark of a diamond shape enclosing his nickname "Jo." (1)

His career change to wheat dealer for the Chicago market prompted him in 1860 to move to McGregor, Iowa, a major wheat market. To establish an efficient purchasing and shipping system, he invested in railroad line elevators in Iowa and Minnesota and entered steamboating to collect wheat along portions of the upper Mississippi. (2)

He had his first steamboat built at Lansing, Iowa, in 1862, but generally until 1868 he paid other boatmen to transport his wheat. Before he had operated "The Lansing" for long, the Minnesota Packet Company operating between Dubuque and St. Paul convinced Reynolds to sell them the boat while promising him that his business would be treated fairly. Before the end of the season, he found these promises to be worthless. (3)

Reynolds retaliated during the winter of 1862-1863 by constructing the steamer "Diamond Jo" and the barges "Fleming" and "Conger." (4) Once again the packet company convinced him to sell. This time he found the agreement workable until his business increased to the point that he again felt he needed his own boats. (5) Over a period of years, Reynolds purchased the twin-screw propeller, "John C. Gault" and later a stern-wheeler known as the "Ida Fulton." He repurchased the "Diamond Jo" and the two barges and bought the "Imperial" and other barges from John Robinson of Winona, Minnesota and the "Pittsburg," (renamed "Dubuque") and "Gem City" (renamed "Quincy) from companies on the Ohio River. Reynolds also chartered the "Bannock City," "Lady Pike," and "John C. Chambers." (6) He reentered steamboating by forming the Chicago, Fulton, and River Line. (7) The company's four steamers, including the Diamond Jo, and accompanying barges operated in connection with the Chicago and North Western Railroad out of Fulton, Illinois. The two firms arranged for freight exchanges to supply wheat to the Chicago market and deliver a variety of goods shipped westward by the railroad.

While based at Fulton, Reynolds's line became known as the Diamond Jo. However, the name was not formalized until the incorporation of the Diamond Jo Line in 1883.

In 1874 Reynolds moved his general office from Fulton to Dubuque. There were concessions made to the company from the city government to encourage the relocation. These concessions included: (8)

         allowing a wharf boat in front of the lower levee where
            it is paved and north of any wharf boat that could
            later be placed along the levee for a term of five
            years,
         use of a portion of the lower levee not exceeding 150
            feet front for a coal yard,
         use of 500 feet front of the outer levee at the foot
            of Third Street and running north for a boatyard,
         exempt from wharfage (taxes) all boats, barges, and
            vessels of every kind owned by the company so long
            as the company complies with the terms of the
            contract and maintains its headquarters in the city
            for a period of ten years

In 1878 the Diamond Jo Company spent about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars and located permanently at EAGLE POINT where the DIAMOND JO BOATYARD was established. Seventy-eight men were employed in January, 1880. (9) In that year, the company was the largest single employer in Dubuque. (10) With seventy-five men employed in the boatyard, the company paid wages from $800 to $1,000 per week. In addition, the purchase of material in Dubuque added an estimated $150,000 to the local economy. (11)

The boatyard built and repaired Reynolds's boats as well as those of other upper Mississippi operators. In an article published by the Dubuque Herald in January 1880, the reporter saw the following being repaired: (12)

          Annie Girdon-------Knapp, Stout and Company
          Louisville---------Knapp, Stout and Company
          Helen Mar----------Knapp, Stout and Company
          Pete Wilson--------Knapp, Stout and Company
          L. W. Barden-------unknown owner
          Josie--------------unknown owner
          

Working together, the Diamond Jo Company built the upper portions of boats and the IOWA IRON WORKS constructed the iron and steel sections.

The financial difficulties of the rival Keokuk Northern Line Packet Company enabled the efficient Reynolds to expand. In 1879 Diamond Jo boats began offering St. Paul-St. Louis service, and when the Keokuk Northern went bankrupt in 1880, Reynolds turned from his previous freight business to the passenger trade. In the 1880s the most famous Diamond Jo vessels, such as the Mary Morton, were luxurious passenger boats. When the successor of the Keokuk Northern ceased operating in 1890, the Diamond Jo Line was the only remaining organized steamboat company between St. Louis and St. Paul. (13)

The Diamond Jo Line passed to his widow, and after her death on August 2, 1895, to a group headed by her brother, Jay. On February 3, 1911 the entire company was sold to the STRECKFUS STEAMBOAT LINE. (14) For $200,000 the Streckfus Company obtained the steamers St. Paul, Quincy, Dubuque and Sidney. In addition it received the wharves, warehouses and boatyards of the company. (15)

The "Dubuque." Photo courtesy: Bob Reding
Telegraph Herald, Sept. 11, 1964. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
The main salon on the "Dubuque.". Photo courtesy:http://www.riverboatdaves.com/postcards/d/dubuque/dubuque.html
The side deck on the "Dubuque.". Photo courtesy:http://www.riverboatdaves.com/postcards/d/dubuque/dubuque.html


Boats Constructed: (16)

1864-83, DIAMOND JO. At one point she was sold to competitor, then in 1868, repurchased. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_D

1867, JOHN C. GAULT, propeller driven towboat.

186?9?, early spring?,-72, LADY PIKE

1869, July, Chartered STERLING to help with enormous work load.

1867-73, The line added a boat named IMPERIAL. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_I
1867-70, the JEANETTE ROBERTS. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_J

1871, Chartered briefly, BANNOCK CITY

1873-81, IMPERIAL a powerful towboat

1873, Built and operated JOSIE.. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_J
1878-99, Built and operated JOSEPHINE. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_J
1879, LIBBY CONGER, passengers and freight only. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_L
1880-87, Built and operated MARY MORTON. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_M
1883-86, ST. PAUL. Observers watch the St. Paul, another ship of the Diamond Jo Line. Photo courtesy: Bob Reding

189?-1901 WASHINGTON

1896-1901, DUBUQUE. Built in 1895. Photo courtesy: https://wiki.cincinnatilibrary.org/index.php/Inland_Riverboats_-_D
1886 promotional leaflet
Pen and ink drawings of life aboard the steamboat in 1886
Advertisement for a tour on the Diamond Jo Line.
Photo courtesy: Bob Reding
Complimentary pass. Photo courtesy: Bill Pollard

---

Source:

1. Hudson, David; Bergman, Marvin; Horton, Loren. The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2008

2. Ibid.

3. "Sale of Diamond Jo Line; $200,000," Dubuque Herald, February 12, 1911, p. 8

4. "Dubuque, A Boat Building Center," Telegraph Herald, August 21, 1910 Part II, p. 1

5. "Sale of Diamond Jo..."

6. Ibid.

7. Hudson, et al.

8. "City Council," Dubuque Herald, February 21, 1874, p. 2

9. Oldt, Franklin. History of Dubuque County, Iowa. Chicago: Western Historical Company, 1880. Online: http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-26-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

10. "Diamond Jo," Dubuque Herald, January 30, 1880, p. 5

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Hudson et al.

14. "Diamond Jo Line Boats are Sold," Dubuque Herald, February 3, 1911

15. "Sale of Diamond Jo Line..."

16. Riverboat Dave's. "Riverboat Companies and Owners," Online: http://www.riverboatdaves.com/owners/d.html