Camp of Clam Hunters. Photo courtesy: Cathy's Treasures, 156 Main, Dubuque
CLAM HUNTING. Profitable business on the MISSISSIPPI RIVER
. Clamming reached its economic peak in the late 1800s when several varieties, including the HIGGINS' EYE CLAM
were used in the BUTTON INDUSTRY
A model of a clam boat with a crowfoot dredge. Photo courtesy: National Mississippi River Museum and Aquarium.
At the beginning of the industry, many methods of catching mussels were used including using ordinary rakes. In 1897 the "crowfoot" dredge was developed. This was a six foot pole or rod with many four-pronged hooks attached to it with ropes. Mussels resting on the mud or sand of the river bottom opened their shells to catch food. When a hook was pulled over the shell, the mussel quickly snapped shut and was caught. By the start of the 19th century, the average clammer used two crowfoot dredges suspended from a boat. Drifting downstream, one dredge was being emptied of clams while the second was in the water catching more. On the best of days, this operation could result in the collection of as much as a thousand pounds of shell.
Many mussel hunters today, using an air compressor and long lengths of hose, dive into the river. With fifty-pound weight belts to hold them on the river bottom, divers collect clams in nets pulled up with motorized hoists.
Because freshwater clam flesh is inedible, dead clams are worth more--as much as twenty cents a pound in the late 1980s. Clams are cooked and then loaded into metal tumblers perforated with holes. The flesh, dropped out of the holes as the clams tumble in the drum, is used as animal feed or thrown away. A good catch, up to seven hundred pounds daily, has earned a hunter up to three hundred dollars.
Clamshells are shipped to Tennessee or Japan. Bits of shell, surgically implanted into oysters, are used to stimulate the formation of cultured pearls. Occasionally a lucky hunter may find a freshwater clam containing pearls-some valued at over one thousand dollars.
Heavy clam harvesting (first warned about by John BOEPPLE),chemical poisoning of the river, and silting of the river bottom have all caused the populations of clams in the river to decline.