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CIVIL WAR

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See the category--Civil War Sketches

CIVIL WAR. The American Civil War was a struggle fought within the United States from 1861 until 1865 with such complex political, economic, psychological and social causes that reasons for the conflict remain a source of disagreement among historians. For an excellent background, read chapters 1-9 of James McPherson's Pulitzer Prize winning book Battle Cry of Freedom.

Express and Herald Jan 12, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Express and Herald Jan 12, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris

The Civil War was a glaring example of the United States getting into a war before it prepared for it. (1) In 1861 most of the 16,000-man army was scattered among seventy-nine frontier posts west of the Mississippi River. One third of its officers were resigning to serve with their friends in the South. All but one of the heads of the eight army bureaus had been in service since the War of 1812. The Union Army had no general staff, no strategic plans, and no program of mobilization. It possessed few accurate maps of the South. When General Henry W, Halleck, commanding the Western Department in early 1862 wanted maps he had to purchase them from a St. Louis bookstore. (2)

A call signed by about one-hundred citizens appeared about the middle of January, 1861, for a meeting of

         all persons who are impressed with 
         the imminent perils of dissolution 
         now threatening the Union and are 
         willing in a spirit of conciliation 
         and compromise to agree to an settlement 
         of the questions which now unhappily 
         distract the country, upon the basis of 
         the Crittenden Compromise propositions. (3)

This meeting was held at the court house, and Warner LEWIS was named chairperson and William W. Mills declared secretary. A committee of five was appointed to draft resolutions — T. M. Monroe, Dr. James C. Lay, Thomas Faherty, James H. Williams and J. H. Emerson. While these men met, the secretary read the Crittenden resolutions and the meeting heard a strong Union appeal by John D. Jennings. The resolutions declared that the people were unalterably attached to the Union; that there was no natural conflict between the two sections; and that the Crittenden Compromise or some other practical proposition should be adopted. After debate, the resolutions were unanimously adopted and forwarded to Congress. (4)

The DUBUQUE HERALD consistently expressed the view that the country was unnecessarily headed for war.

         War has probably been commenced between the North and 
         the South, consequent upon the persistency (sic) of the 
         administration to hold Fort Sumter and to carry into effect 
         the doctrine of the 'irrepressible conflict.' We have but 
         little heart today for comment. In a day or two at farthest 
         we shall probably have the result of the conflict in Charleston harbor. We anticipate it
         will be a bloody one — destructive of life and property, and the beginning of
         revolution which will end in the destruction of the government and of course 
         of the Union. (5)
                                Herald, April 10, 1861 

The Herald argued that while the government had a right to reinforce Fort Sumter, other circumstances overshadowed such a right. A different plan should be taken and remedial measures taken. (6)

          A parental government would have tried remedial 
          measures first before resorting to the exercise 
          of its vengeance; but the government as administered 
          by Mr. Lincoln seems to know of but one course to pursue, 
          and that is to provoke a conflict between the government 
          and its disaffected people, for the purpose of coercing 
          them to obey its own behests and to submit to the infliction
          of intolerable grievances from a fanatical faction which 
          have obtained control of the government. 
                         Herald, April 10, 1861

By 1861, many military companies had been organized in Dubuque: the DUBUQUE CITY GUARDS, Turner Rifle Company, GOVERNOR'S GREYS, JACKSON GUARDS, DUBUQUE LIGHT HORSE GUARDS, UNION GUARDS, DUBUQUE LIGHT ARTILLERY, and the WASHINGTON GUARDS. The number of military groups and their lack of training was a concern for some residents. (See editorial on left)

Dubuque Herald Jan 24, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris

Just two days before the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the Herald carried this editorial: (7)

         What deep lethargy has fallen on the 
         American people? The government is 
         tumbling into ruins. The nation is on 
         the verge of a plunge into civil war. 
         Imbecility of rulers at the federal 
         capital is governed by a military 
         dictator. Hostile fleets and armies 
         are dispatched to begin hostilities 
         upon our brethren of the South, when 
         that act shall become the death knell 
         of the Union. Men of all parties can 
         be found who deprecate the hostile 
         operations of the military dictator at 
         Washington. Let us all who are opposed 
         to the code of coercion meet in one vast 
         body in Dubuque and protest with our 
         loudest voice against civil war and the 
         military terrorism inaugurated at Washington. 
         Our motto should be, 'No fraternal bloodshed 
         — no civil war; but peace and conciliation.
                      Herald, April 11, 1861 

The opposing view during the lead up to and years of civil war was expressed by the DUBUQUE TIMES. On July 12, 1861, an article signed "Patriot" appeared in the Times, from which the following are extracts: (8)

          To the Lazy-Abiding Citizens of Dubuque. — It is 
          well known to you that there is a paper published 
          in our midst that is devoted entirely, both in its
          editorials and selected matter, to the cause of 
          those who are endeavoring to overthrow our government 
          and our liberties. This paper, while it professes to 
          be in favor of the Union and denies being in favor of 
          secession, yet boldly advocates a recognition of the 
          Southern Confederacy and opposes 'forcing a government
          upon people which they do not desire,' thus giving the 
          lie to its professions of Union, a paper which is 
          notoriously in the hands of a few persons of "gentle 
          southern blood,' who boldly sympathize with the South 
          and rejoice over any temporary success she may achieve 
          and who have repeatedly declared their intention of 
          returning to her soil to take arms against our government. 
          
          It is well known that this paper is exerting quite a wide-
          spread and seditious influence upon its readers and waxing 
          bolder every day.  
          Would it not be well for the patriots of this city to 
          assemble in mass meeting in a quiet and orderly manner 
          to express our indignation and abhorrence of the sentiments 
          of this paper and its supporters, to declare that such are 
          not the sentiments of this community in general, to withdraw 
          our support from it, both in subscription and in advertising, 
          and to counsel as to those means which may be rightly used 
          to rid us of the reproach and injury its existence brings 
          upon us? That this is a duty now devolving upon us is freely 
          admitted by many influential citizens with whom longer patience 
          has ceased to be a virtue."


With the firing upon Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln called for volunteers. At the time, the State of Iowa was only twelve years old; Dubuque was thirty. (9) When the final records were checked at the end of the war, it was found that half of the men of military age had marched to war. The state has never again seen a departure of so many of its young men (as a percent of population) in any war. In the first days of enlistment, so many young men came forward that four companies rather than just two could have been created. (10) The First Iowa Infantry regiment, formed in Dubuque under the leadership of Colonel John F. Bates, was the first Iowa unit established under Lincoln's call for volunteers on ninety-day service. Later regiments were formed of men volunteering typically for three years.

Volunteers, of course, had concerns about their families when they were gone. Some of Dubuque's leading citizens quickly formed the short-lived VOLUNTEER FUND BOARD. (11)

The call-up of volunteers brought tension to Dubuque. Iowa Catholics especially in Dubuque were not generally supporters of the war. (12) Bishop Mathias LORAS owned a slave. Other Catholic bishops while insisting that slave owners treat their slaves in a humane manner seemed to accept the practice as a part of Southern society. Traditionally Democratic, Dubuque Catholics supported Democratic candidates in 1860. Patrick J. QUIGLEY and George Wallace JONES committed themselves to the Democratic candidate, Breckenridge. Dennis MAHONY, an influential lay leader in the church, teacher, state legislator, and newspaper editor chose to support Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas. While Lincoln carried the state in the election of 1860, Dubuque and Lee counties, voted Democratic. (13)

Iowa Catholics also had reservations about the new Republican Party. Formed just before the election of 1860, this political group included anti-Catholics such as the former Know-Nothings. The DUBUQUE OBSERVER came into existence in 1854 with a definite hostility to the Irish and foreign born and a suspicious attitude toward Catholics. A belief at the time was that a Catholic conspiracy existed which was attempting to bring down the Republic and the Constitution. (14)

Given the strong pro-Southern leanings of many of the citizens, Bishop Clement SMYTH took a decidedly different approach. The bishop strongly condemned the activities of the COPPERHEADS and threatened excommunication of any Catholics who joined. He called upon the foreign born not to do anything that would suggest they were disloyal and openly expressed grief at the death of Lincoln at the end of the war. (15)

Volunteers leaving Dubuque.
Two Dubuque companies were the Governor's Greys led by Captain Fredrick Gottschalk and Captain Francis J. HERRON and the Jackson Guard. Only four of the Jackson Guards were native-born Americans. The other members of the company were immigrants from Prussia, Bavaria, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, Luxembourg, and nine German states. The Governor's Greys were primarily native-born Americans with nearly half of the company originally from New York and only five natives of Iowa. There were fifteen foreign-born members of the group.

On April 22, 1861, the companies departed Dubuque for Missouri aboard the ship the Alhambra in a scene illustrated by Alexander SIMPLOT. (16) The Dubuque Herald on April 23, 1861 noted that volunteers were walking as far as twenty-five miles to come to Dubuque to volunteer. Pro-war sermons were preached by ministers of the Baptist and Congregational Churches. Classes at Catholic schools were dismissed, and Bishop Smyth flew the Stars and Stripes. Led by the GERMANIA BAND, the companies marched to the boat at the base of Jones Street.

Dubuque Herald, April 26, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Uniforms for the soldiers, despite valiant efforts of the Ladies Volunteer Labour Society (see the editorial on the left), were not complete and were sent two weeks later. Plans had called for: (17)
           Capt. Herron’s Company, Dubuque; each man, 
           hat, frock coat, pants, two flannel shirts, 
           two pairs of socks and one pair of shoes.
           Capt. Gottschalk’s Company, Dubuque; blouse 
           instead of coat, and other articles same as 
           Capt. Herron’s.

In August 1861 members of the First Iowa returned home in brand new uniforms after their ninety-day service. The new uniforms hid the fact that for most of their duty, the soldiers had been dressed in "tatters...that would excite the profoundest contempt of the seediest beggar." (18)

The following account is given of the Governor’s Greys when they put on their first uniforms:

              They are admirable fits, all of them, except say eighty or a hundred… 
              A majority of the boys are able to get their pantaloons from the floor 
              by buttoning the waistbands around their necks—others accomplish this 
              desirable result by bringing the waistbands tight up under the arms 
              and rolling them up six or eight inches at the bottom. To be sure this 
              is a little inconvenient in some respects—a fellow has to take off his 
              belts, then his coat, and then ascend one story before he can reach his 
              pockets, and after reaching them they are so deep that one has to take 
              the pants off entirely before he can reach the bottom. Each pocket will 
              hold a shirt, a blanket and even the wearer himself if at any time he 
              finds such a retreat necessary.
              And the coats fit beautifully—almost in fact as well as the pants. To be 
              sure half of them are two feet too large around the waist, and almost as 
              much too small around the chest—but then these two drawbacks admirably 
              offset each other. In the cases of fifteen or twenty of them the top 
              collar is but a trifle above the small of the wearer’s back, and in the 
              cases of about as many more the same article is a few inches above the 
              head of their owners. The same collar also in some cases terminates beneath 
              each ear, and in many others it sweeps away around in a magnificent curve, 
              forming a vast basin whose rim is yards distant from the neck of its 
              possessor. And the sleeves, too, have here and there a fault—some are so 
              tight under the arms that they lift one up as if he were swinging upon a 
              couple of ropes that pass underneath his armpits—others strike boldly out 
              and do not terminate their voluminous course till at distance of several 
              inches beyond the tips of his fingers, while others conclude their journey 
              after marching an inch or so below the elbows.

Despite the problems, the work of the women was appreciated. The Governor’s Greys adopted the following resolution:

              Head-Quarters, G. Greys, Co. I, 1st Reg. I. S. M.,
              Verandah Hall, Keokuk, May 15, 1861
              At a meeting of the company the following resolutions were 
              unanimously adopted:
              Whereas, The matrons and maidens of Dubuque, fired with the same 
              noble patriotism and enthusiasm as inspired those of ’76, and 
              emulating their noble example, have left their daily avocations 
              of business or pleasure, to unite in aiding us to go forth properly 
              accoutred to meet the enemies of our country; therefore
              Resolved, That we appreciate with the liveliest emotions of gratitude 
              that self-sacrificing patriotism which flowers indigenous in the breast 
              of woman, and has prompted them to this act of kindness toward us.
              Resolved, That the consciousness that we shall daily carry with us the 
              smiles and the prayers, the hopes and the fears of so many lovely faces 
              and warms hearts, will strengthen our rougher bosoms to endure with 
              patience the hardships, and courage to meet boldly the dangers that may 
              oppose us, while fighting the battles of our country.
              Resolved, That these uniforms, into which so fair hands have woven so 
              many and so kind wishes, will be an impenetrable web to the entrance of 
              traitors or cowardly thoughts and a sacred remembrancer of those for 
              whose protection we are fighting.
              Resolved, That the coats shall be our coats of arms, that they shall 
              never be turn coats, that they will always remind us of the petticoats, 
              and that while we wear the pants we shall always pant for honor, and 
              hope to make the ladies participants of that hour.
              Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to the President 
              of the Ladies’ Volunteer Aid Association and to the daily papers of 
              Dubuque.
              F. J. Herron, Capt. Co. I
              Charles N. Clark, Clerk of Co. I.

Governor Kirkwood wrote the following letter to Dubuque:

           Mrs. A. Gillespie, Sec’y, &c., Dubuque, Iowa:
           Dear Madam:--Through the attention of D. N. Cooley, Esq., I am informed 
           of the voluntary services rendered by yourself and other ladies of Dubuque, 
           in fitting out the two companies of volunteers from your city.
           I can not allow the occasion to pass without expressing my sincere thanks 
           for this practical display of the patriotism of the ladies of Dubuque.
           You have set a noble example in thus coming forward in the time of our need, 
           and have shown us by this patriotic offering to the welfare of our gallant 
           soldiers, that it needs, but the occasion to reproduce the heroines of ’76. 
           With the request that you will convey to each and every one of the ladies 
           connected with you in this good work, my assurance, that your general 
           assistance will be fully appreciated by the people of the State, I beg to 
           subscribe myself, most respectfully,
           Your obedient servant,
           Gov. Samuel J. Kirkwood. (19)
Civil War body armor advertisement
One of the lesser unknown objects worn after 1862 by some Union soldiers was body armor. G&D Cook Company and Atwater Armor Company of New Haven, Connecticut started the mass production of bulletproof vests when the Civil War began. G&D Cook Company, originally a carriage maker, switched to body armor production due to the high demand. The Atwater Armor Company produced 200 body armors a day at its peak production rate. (20)

The body armor manufactured by both companies was never officially issued to the troops on either side. There were no regulations or guidelines in place to control how they were designed and tested. G&D Cook Company manufactured two models, one for infantry and one for cavalry and artillery. The vest for cavalry and artillery was the heavier model. Two steel plates were joined together in the center, supported by hooks secured over the shoulder. A blue cloth fabric with gold buttons was placed around the waist to cover the steel plating. This was also done to resemble the Union uniform. (21)

Whether the Atwater Company manufactured more than one model is not known. Their vests were heavier and more expensive. Atwater used four steel plates. Like the Cook's vest, it was also secured over the shoulder with two hooks. A belt was added around the waist for a tighter fit. (22)

Civil War body armor
The vests were widely advertised in the Harper’s Weekly and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper. Some of the advertisements contained false endorsements from military officers. Stores sold the vests for $5.00 for privates and $7.00 for officers, with higher quality ones for the officers. (23)

The vests sold quickly in the early days of war, but soldiers quickly became disillusioned with them. They were marching with as much as 50 pounds of equipment and when the vest was included that was an additional 6 to 12 pounds. Some soldiers did not wear the vest because of the stigma of cowardice associated with it; others complained the vest did not fit comfortably under their uniforms. (24)

Food supplies were a definite problem. Soldiers in the First Iowa during one four-day march covering seventy-eight miles were issued one cup of corn meal mush per day. (25) Soldiers added what food they could find along the way. Perhaps the worse element of the meal was the pork. Correspondent Franc Wilkie claimed "it reposes in superlative nastiness in every barrel. (26) This may have been especially disturbing to Dubuque soldiers who were aware that William A. RYAN of Dubuque was such a major supplier of pork that he was called "Hog" Ryan back home.

Dubuque Herald, May 5, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald. Feb. 27, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Supplying weapons for the troops also proved difficult. Captain R. G. Herron returned from Springfield, Illinois on May 4, 1861. He had been sent by Governor Kirkwood to requisition 5,000 "stands" of arms. Herron found nothing but old flintlocks which had been refitted into percussion arms. There were bayonets but no scabbards. He refused all of the equipment. Most of the arms in government arsenals (including the 159,000 muskets seized by Confederate states) were smooth bore, many of them antique flintlocks. (27) War correspondent, Franc WILKIE claimed the guns posed a bigger threat to "friend than enemy." (28)

On August 10, 1861, Dubuque troops fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in southwestern Missouri near Springfield. The First Iowa Regiment was in the center of battle and took heavy loses. The Union Army lost 1,235 men and the Southern army lost 3,000. (29) The bloody battle, which lasted only one morning, led to the death of 30 percent of the Jackson Guards and 23 percent of the Governors' Greys whose gray uniforms unfortunately led many to be mistaken for Confederates. (30) The battered troops marched home to be mustered out. Many enlisted again in new companies and became officers. The First Regiment was never reorganized. (31) Instead of recruiting old regiments up to strength, states preferred to organize new ones with new opportunities for patronage in the form of officers' commissions and pride in the number of regiments sent by the state. (32)

Professional soldiers detested the practice of electing officers in volunteer regiments and appointing generals through politics. On July 22, the day after the Union defeat at Bull Run, the Union Congress authorized the creation of military boards to examine officers and remove those unqualified. Hundreds were quickly discharged or resigned voluntarily rather than face the examiners. (33)

Dubuque residents along with Americans throughout the country soon became aware of the terrible nature of war. Correspondents like Wilkie reported the tragedy:

           Some the wounds were horrible; some had the
           lower jaw shot away, others had arms torn
           off, others came in with legs dangling over
           the sides of the wagon, all thirsty, and
           calling almost incessantly for water.  A
           flag of truce went out soon after to bring
           in the wounded and bury the dead, and up to
           a late hour the work went on. (34)
Envelopes were commonly used to support the unity of the nation.
1862 patriotic envelope.
Express and Herald Jan 12, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris

Eleven days after the battle, one-fourth of the Jackson Guards and half of the Governors' Greys re-enlisted. In 1862 Captain Herron became the youngest major general on either side at the time of his appointment. (35)

Dennis Mahony, editor of the Dubuque Herald, wrote to Governor Kirkwood and offered to recruit and lead an Irish regiment. His offer was not accepted. Other efforts by Democrats to join in the war effort were also rejected, an action that has led some historians to suspect the Republican Party of attempts to gain a partisan victory from the war with political and economic benefits. The conflict over the Civil War was carried out locally through the NEWSPAPERS. The editor of the Dubuque Times, a staunchly Republican publication, even suggested that if Democrats really wanted to cooperate in the war effort they would join the Republican Party.

Most Northern Democrats did support the war effort, earning the title "War Democrats." Other Democrats came to oppose the war and earned for themselves the term "Peace Democrats" or more commonly "Copperheads." (36) Dubuque also had its southern sympathizers. Senator George W. Jones and former Governor Stephen HEMPSTEAD had sons in the Confederate army. Jones, a life-long friend of Confederate President Jefferson DAVIS and United States ambassador to Columbia, was arrested upon his return to the United States in part because of indiscreet letters he had written Davis prior to the Civil War. Jones, his political fortunes ended, raised an uproar by going south to visit Davis after the war and returned in 1899 to attend the funeral of his friend. (37)

Anti-Catholic and anti-foreign attitudes expressed by those who were also anti-slavery angered many Dubuque residents. Republican leaders including President Abraham Lincoln believed that many influential Dubuque citizens were pro-slavery. Dubuque was rumored to be a headquarters of the KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE. There was widespread suppression of the press, along with arrests, censorship, and suspension of habeas corpus. It has been said Jones was jailed as much as a warning to powerful Dubuque residents as for his letters to Davis.

Nearly every company of stopped in front of the offices of the "Dubuque Times" to give three cheers for the newspaper's support of the war. (38) Dubuque's principal newspapers bitterly attacked each other's point of view. Accusations made by the Dubuque Times against the Dubuque Herald led Dennis Mahony to charge the paper with libel. The Herald further incited the Times by printing editorials that urged peace and condemned the Lincoln Administration. A riot caused by rumors of a plot to destroy the Herald office was prevented by law enforcement officials and the efforts of MAYOR Henry L. STOUT.

Mahony, a bitter opponent to the war, was arrested on August 13, 1862, at his home and jailed in the Washington, D.C. prison without habeas corpus until after the elections in November 1862. (39)

Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque was selected as a rendezvous for regiments raised by a new call from the War Department. The first training center was CAMP UNION. Located near the Mississippi River near current day Rhomberg Street, it opened in August, 1861, and initially served as a recruiting center for the Ninth and 12th Iowa Volunteer Infantry. Within a month there were 600 volunteers at the camp under the military discipline of Col. William B. Allison. There were ten barracks, outdoor cooking and eating, water and bathing facilities, and ample food. Col. J. K. Graves served as quartermaster at the camp and gave out rations and blankets. (40) Recruiting offices flew flags from nearly every block in the city. Since Dubuque had such an anti-Lincoln reputation, the idea of it being the headquarters for a training center called Camp Union made little sense. The camp reopened in July 1861 as Camp Franklin and housed the 21st, 27th, 32nd, and 38th regiments. All 120 men of the 21st regiment were residents of Dubuque; Captain Swivel was their leader. (41)

Julius K. GRAVES built a hospital at the camp to treat the wounded and sick. Outbreaks of typhoid, measles and other diseased occurred during the fall of 1862, causing 11 deaths and over 200 sick men. Sick soldiers were cared for by the Soldiers Aid Society and the Dubuque Women's Society. The hospital was initially run by the SISTERS OF CHARITY OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY (BVM). The hospital was later torn down and replaced with COLUMBIA ACADEMY. (42)

In October 1862 Governor Kirkwood visited the camp after being told of complaints about patient care. A report at Camp Franklin indicated that 193 men had been admitted to the camp hospital, 163 had returned to duty, seven were convalescing, one had been discharged, eight had died and 14 were still in the hospital quite ill. The buildings were dismantled and sold at an auction in January, 1863, for $1,564. (43)

Dubuque-Herald, January 16, 1863. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
The barracks for the volunteers were constructed 60 feet by 20 feet to house one hundred men. More than six hundred were quartered two weeks after the camp was built. Soldiers were advised to take their own blankets or quilts because the camp had none. (44) Apparently this advise was not followed because "Captains Welsh and Rogers went door to door in Dubuque asking for blankets" with the promise that they would be returned when they were no longer needed. (45) By 1863, Camp Franklin housed 2,000 soldiers with another 1,500 living in private homes and hotels in the city. (46) The same year, Camp Franklin was discontinued. (47)
Dubuque-Herald, January 11, 1863. Image courtesy: Diane Harris

The search for more soldiers led to the movement to form an Irish regiment in Dubuque. Service for one year would grant citizenship to foreigners. Those who joined were attached to General Corcoran's Irish Brigade. A special Christmas dinner for the volunteers and others stationed by Camp Franklin came from local ladies who sent pies, cakes and supplies of turkeys to the soldiers.

Dubuque-Herald, Aug. 5, 1862. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque became recognized as one of the Union's best recruiting centers. (48) The city filled its city enlistment quotas throughout the war without resorting to conscription. (49) Lieutenant Dewey, one of the most successful recruiters, enlisted five hundred men in one year. Joseph B. Dorr earlier in the war helped recruit a regiment after he had escaped from a Confederate prison. (50)

When the government issued a call for more troops, each state was given a quota to fill based on its population. The number of volunteers would be subtracted from the quota and the difference would be drafted. If a draftee, volunteered before the final muster, he avoided the stigma of compulsory service and was eligible to collect a bounty of $100 from the federal government plus additional bounties from the state and local communities. In total, the bounties could exceed $500, which was about the average yearly wage in those days. States considered it a matter of pride to fill their quotas without having to resort to the draft.

The Dubuque Herald had another view of the draft: (51)

      The fairest way to raise troops is 
      by drafting. There are at least a 
      hundred partisan leaders who are 
      urging every Democrat they meet to 
      go to war, but not one of whom 
      volunteers himself to go. It is 
      amusing to see our Stouts, 
      Langworthys, Allisons, Adamses and 
      other leading Republicans running to 
      and fro urging their poorer neighbors 
      to go to war. If they will not, let 
      them take their chances at the time 
      of drafting." 
             Herald, July 30, 1862 

A draftee could gain an exemption by paying a fee of $300 or by hiring a substitute. Negotiating for substitutes was a perfectly honorable deal. Fees for same were governed largely by the availability of men willing to go as a substitute. A substitute usually got as much as a commutation fee of $300.00. Thus, a substitute could receive his fee of $300.00 plus volunteer bonus of $100.00, totaling $400.00--a fair sum, about equal to a year's average rural income. (52) The bounty system also made possible the enrichment of a large number of unscrupulous persons called "bounty jumpers." These men would enlist to collect their bounty, then desert and enlist somewhere else and collect another bounty. (53)

Iowa was the only state to organize a group of older men for service; this was the GRAYBEARD REGIMENT which included several Dubuque residents. (54)

Soldiers from Dubuque were also active in the final campaigns of the war. They saw action along the Rio Grande, in Mississippi, Georgia and Tennessee. At the same time, recruitment became more difficult. Obtaining substitutes to avoid conscription became more common with offers ranging from $200 to $400. (55) A brokers' association formed in Dubuque furnished substitutes. Each member paid $250 to have a substitute for one year. If the member was not drafted, his fee remained in the association. In 1864 a special tax was levied by the Board of Supervisors to relieve Dubuque County of the draft. A total of $125,000 was appropriated to secure volunteers who would enlist giving credit to Dubuque County. Scores of men flooded to Dubuque although each was to be paid no more than $400. The total amount paid out reached $115,800.

Sacrifice on the battlefield was matched by determined assistance from those left at home. Under the leadership of Mrs. James Langworthy, Mrs. Henry L. Stout, and Mrs. J. W. Taylor, the Ladies' Volunteer Labour Society in Dubuque made uniforms for the Jackson Guards and the Governor's Greys in 1861. In eight days, 248 women sewed all the uniforms for the Governor's Grays and the Jackson Guards. (56) Boxes of clothing and food were sent to soldiers in the field throughout the war. The Society met in the basement of the Baptist Church. Annual membership dues were twenty-five cents. Donations of knitting, sewing, money, and food were accepted. Christmas dinner was provided every soldier's family in Dubuque in 1863.

Image courtesy: Diane Harris.
Fund-raising was an important activity of the Society. In addition to the dues, the Society served breakfast and refreshments at the Iowa State Agricultural Fair in 1864. This activity, in addition to providing an evening benefit entertainment, earned the Society $1000. Collections were also taken in church. Local festivals and balls earned hundreds of dollars.

Other community efforts to help in the war effort included the Christian Commission Society. Organized on November 21, 1864, the agency met the needs of the church in distributing food and spiritual needs to military personnel. Representatives were sent to every command with supplies and Bibles. Direct benefit to the troops also came from the NORTHERN IOWA SANITARY FAIR and LINT SOCIETIES.

Public sponsored relief for soldiers vs relief for their families was quite different. Many considered relief to a soldier as something earned and therefore respectable. There was a definite thought, however, that relief to a soldier's family only encouraged poor habits and was a financial drain on the community. (57) Solon LANGWORTHY noted in his diary on August 4, 1862:

                The family of soldiers are begging throughout the city with
                less success then (sic) circus men meet with. Shame on the
                Community who Suffer the defenders of the Constitution to
                Complain that their Families are not Provided for while they
                are Batling (sic) for Liberty + Law. (58)

In 1864 Iowa passed its first law requiring special arrangements for family assistance in each county. In failing to define all soldiers' families as worthy of relief, however, the law only supported methods already in effect. Local officials could still reward or withhold relief on their own perceptions of worthiness. (59) The failure of the Volunteer Fund Board by 1862 through the question of the family support to the board of supervisors. They initially considered a special appropriation or special tax but rejected both. (60) Even the Ladies Aid Society as early as 1862 appointed a visiting investigative committee to determine whether aid to a soldier's family was appropriate. (61)

Soldiers continually pleaded for better means of providing for their families. Iowa's Senator Grimes did, in 1861, get Congress to finally pass an Allotment Act. Under its conditions, each state had three agents to travel "from time to time" among Iowa's troops collecting money to deliver to families back home. It was left to the officers, however, whether they regiments would participate in the system. In response, soldiers offered to resign so that they could return home. Others deserted and faced court martial. (62) Rather than provide an example of a system that left women dependent upon men, the lesson learned by many was self-dependency. Government should not interrupt this dependency even in the case of soldiers' families.(63)

Sept. 28, 1866. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
News of the occupation of Charleston by Union troops and the surrender of General Robert E. Lee were causes of joyous celebration. Flags were displayed on February 22, 1865, to celebrate the Charleston victory, and Captain Oliver Perry SHIRAS ordered a salute fired with one hundred guns in WASHINGTON PARK.

News of Lee's surrender reached Dubuque on April 8, 1865. Church bells pealed the glorious news. The bell on the FIRST CONGREGATIONAL UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST rang so long it cracked. (64) Flags were displayed everywhere. Those excessively patriotic dressed themselves in national colors and paraded through the streets.

Few knew what to expect from the returning veterans. "Great God!" the Iowa Religious Newsletter, a newspaper founded in the city during the war by a group of pro-war ministers, had quoted an army chaplain saying in July 1862.

        I tremble at the result of this war, 
        lest tens of thousands of the valiant 
        defenders of our country be turned 
        into men of vile speech and ruined 
        character and then turned loose to 
        curse the country their arms have 
        rescued. (65)

The anti-war "Dubuque Herald" and the pro-war "Dubuque Times", each expressed similar concerns. Dennis Mahony, regularly worried in print about the creation of a "subservient army" of "rapine and plunder" to do Lincoln's bidding and tied it to a more general loss of the "sturdy manliness which [once] characterized the citizen of the United States." The "Times" offered this advice to the soldiers: "We would earnestly say to all of our noble hearted volunteers ... [you] may come home maimed for life in body and limb, but do not return with crippled character, and poisoned faculties." (66)

A hauntingly beautiful picture in the Civil War section of Linwood Cemetery. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald. A very typical obituary during the war. Image courtesy: Diane Harris

The Civil War led to the deaths of 3,540 in combat; 8,498 of disease; 515 in prisoner-of-war camps; 227 in accidents; and 221 from nonmilitary causes. There were 8,500 reported wounded.

One of the unexpected results of the Civil War was a growing feeling that Catholics could be trusted. Originally the target of "Nativists," "Know-Nothings," and the KU KLUX KLAN, Catholics benefited from the role of nuns in service to both sides during war. Catholic nuns made of twenty-two percent of all nurses. This translated 580 sisters coming from twelve religious orders. The most, more than 300 nuns, came from the Daughters of Charity, the the largest order in the nation. (67)Some turned their convents into hospitals or took over disease-plagued hospitals. They stayed with their patients even after medical staff fled. (68)

Thomas Holmes’ United States Patent No. 39, 291, “Improvement in Receptacles for Dead Bodies." What would commonly today be called a "body bag," these were rolled up and carried by the soldiers who unrolled them to sleep on keeping them off damp ground. When crossing streams, soldiers who could not swim inflated their bag and with three friends holding onto the other handles used it as a flotation device. Museum of the Funeral Arts, Springfield, Illinois
Modern embalming got its start during the Civil War. Dr. Thomas Holmes received a commission as a captain in the Army Medical Corps and was assigned to Washington, D.C. where he embalmed over 4,000 soldiers and officers. President Lincoln took a great interest in embalming and directed the Quartermaster Corps to utilize embalming to allow the return of Union dead to their home towns for proper burial. When he realized the commercial potential of embalming, Holmes resigned his commission and began offering embalming to the public for $100. (69) He also created a fluid that could be used for embalming and sold it to other physicians for $3 per gallon. The chemicals were a mixture of arsenic, zinc and mercuric chlorides, creosote, turpentine and alcohol. (70) After the Civil War, embalming fell into disuse because of lack of demand and few to do the procedure. "Undertakers" of the day limited their efforts to ice to ward off decomposition long enough to have a funeral. (71)

On May 5, 1868 Gen. John A. Logan commander-in-chief of the GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC, issued an order directing that on May 30th the organization, throughout the United States, should decorate the graves of soldiers who died during the war. On that day squad of cavalry assembled at WASHINGTON PARK at 8:00 a.m. and under command of Lieut. Col. Pollock proceeded to cemeteries at Key West, Center Grove, Rockdale, and on Kelly's Bluffs, and covered the graves of soldiers with flowers. (72)

At 2:00 p.m., soldiers, citizens and the Germania Band assembled at Washington Park. Horsemen, footmen, people in carriages gathered, all bearing bouquets and wreaths of flowers. The order of procession was: First, mounted men; then followed the band; then footmen, and then carriages. The procession as it passed the DUBUQUE CITY HALL it consisted of forty-seven mounted men, seventy-seven men on foot, and thirty-five carriages. A large number of carriages, as well as citizens on foot, had preceded the procession to the cemetery. The order of march was: Down Locust street to First; along First to Main; up Main to Eleventh; down Eleventh to Clay; up Clay and Couler avenue to Eagle Point, and then to LINWOOD CEMETERY. (73) Following a speech and the decoration of the graves with flowers the groups returned home.

In 1893 Dubuque's monument to her Civil War dead was erected in Linwood after twelve years of collecting funds. Iowans constructed monuments as mourning sites for grieving relatives and as tributes to the dead although many were buried in the South at the expense of the federal government. By February 1866, 333 Iowan were buried in the federal cemetery at Helena, Arkansas; 302 at Little Rock, Arkansas; and 147 at Andersonville, Georgia. The interest in monuments peaked in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries. (74)

In 1895 survivors of the Battle of Shiloh returned to the site to help the national commission locate where different regiments fought. The passage of thirty years made the task nearly impossible. Boards were placed at different locations on the battlefield to allow former commanders to indicate where their soldiers had been at different times of the day. The results often showed confusion. The commission began its survey of the battlefield on April 4, 1895 and was expected to complete its work in six months when the site became a national park. (75)

Although hostility towards the South continued after the end of the war, there were early examples of reconciliation. In 1883 members of the First Iowa Infantry which had suffered 154 killed, wounded or missing out of 800 troops at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri accepted an invitation. The occasion was the unveiling of a statue to Commander Nathaniel Lyon who died in the fighting. It was reported that the Iowans mingled happily with their former foes recounting the fighting the days that followed. (76)

In 1928 Dubuque still counted twenty citizens who were veterans of the Civil War. (77) Many visited Linwood Cemetery on Decoration Day. Later called Memorial Day after the nation had been involved in other wars, the day was originally set aside by the Grand Army of the Republic to pay respects for those who had died in this battle or afterwards. (78)

An account of Dubuque's role in the Civil War often leaves the actions of a Dennis Mahony or the role of the Copperheads as the sole representatives of the anti-war or anti-Northern response. The City of Dubuque contributed four sons of the most prominent local figures to the defense of the Confederate States of America. These were Junius Lackland HEMPSTEAD, the son of Iowa's first governor; George Jones and Charles Scott Dodge JONES, the sons of George Wallace JONES, and lastly; Daniel O'Connell QUIGLEY, one son of Dubuque's first Justice of the Peace, a founding father, trustee, and a treasurer of the city.

On October 4, 2014 a ceremony at MOUNT OLIVET CEMETERY was held honoring the military service of the Jones brothers. Participating in the program were several Sons of Confederate Veterans, an organization dedicated to preserving a factual history of the Southern soldier and sailor. The Iowa division of the organization had researched and documented more than 225 Confederate veterans buried in Iowa. (79)

CIVIL WAR DIARY. One of the celebrated Civil War veterans was Andrew Young MCDONALD. An abridgement of his diary appeared in the Telegraph Herald on March 12, 1961. (80)

              Left in the evening on steamboat Alahambra for Davenport.
              Arrived in Davenport April 24 and were escorted to our
              armory by a Davenport company.
    

After a little more than a week of drilling, McDonald left for Keokuk on May 5th aboard a steamboat. In Keokuk, the soldiers were sworn into the service of the United States government and were issued uniforms. On June 13th they left Keokuk by steamboat for Hannibal, Missouri. The first action seen by McDonald took place in Macon, Missouri on June 15th.

               Some of our company captured a secession (Confederate) Drum and
               Fife. Four prisoners were taken. A pole was erected by the boys
               and a grand flag raising by the Union ladies of this place.

McDonald's company captured a Confederate flag at a hotel in Renick, Missouri on June 18th. From there, the company moved to near Booneville, Missouri. On June 26th, he wrote:

               Regiment got paid by State of Iowa for the three weeks they were
               in the service. Eight dollars each man.  Orders issued to have 
               all our things packed up only one valise allowed to each tent.

The First Iowa Regiment and the First Missouri Regiment during the first week in July marched for Springfield, Missouri were a number of skirmishes were occurring.

                Fight at Springfield (July 5th) reported with 1,200 
                secessionists and 20 Union men killed.

On July 7th, the Iowa and Missouri regiments joined forces from Kansas. On July 22nd, the combined force took Forsyth, Missouri.

                 Town taken with only seven men killed. Marching in all a
                 distance of 30 miles. Thirteen wounded. Got some coffee,
                 lead and provisions in town. Swam creek crossed several
                 times depth about three feet.

McDonald reported supplies were low by July 25th with only a cup of mush for rations. On August 2, McDonald reported on another skirmish:

                  After marching about 14 miles our advance guard met the
                  advance guard of the enemy.  The cannon were placed in
                  position on several of the surrounding heights. We
                  deployed off in woods.  The cannon kept up a fire for
                  about one hour. Our cavalry charged the enemy, 80 of
                  whom killed.  Four of our men were killed and eight
                  were wounded.

McDonald took part in his largest battle on August 10th and 11th.

                  We found the enemy ready to receive us with their
                  position well chosen.  The first gun was fired at
                  5 1/2 o'clock. The battle raged with unabating
                  fury for five hours.

On August 11th one member of McDonald's company was killed and 20 were wounded. He was apparently wounded. He wrote of staying at a printer's and being cared for with other wounded. Confederate forces under General Price left the area, but others remained. McDonald wrote on August 28th:

                  Went out in the yard on crutches for the first
                  time. Sat on the grass for awhile and ate
                  dinner. Was told that our men left on the
                  battlefield had all been buried numbering 101.
                  About 12 or 15 are supposed to have been burned
                  by secessionists. Some 20 or 30 died from their
                  wounds--in all about 140 dead.

On August 31st, McDonald was told he was going home. He left Springfield on September 2 and was repeatedly stopped and searched. He received his discharge on September 10th. He reported leaving for Dubuque aboard the ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD on September 11th and reached Dubuque the following day.

In 1961 rifles, swords, bayonets and carbines were discovered in the basement of the CARNEGIE-STOUT PUBLIC LIBRARY. Once belonging to members of the GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC, the collection had been gradually returned to family members. The weapons illustrated the change taking place during the Civil War when a brass cartridge with a bullet at one end were being developed. The self-contained cartridge allowed soldiers to fire more quickly than those using muzzle-loading rifles. Muzzle-loaders, however, were still the most used rifles. It was not uncommon after battles to find rifles in the field that had been loaded more than once by nervous troops. If fired, these guns became bombs that exploded killing their user. (81)

George Washington Healey Monument. Corporal Healey (1842-1913) of the 5th Iowa Cavalry earned the Medal of Honor for capturing Confederate prisoners at Newman, Georgia on July 29, 1864. Earlier he had been wounded in the head and lost the sight in his left eye. Later he was captured and sent to Andersonville Prison. After the war, he operated a hardware store in Dubuque. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1235693336
Soldier monument and two mortars. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1211403338
David Bremmer Henderson. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1256601063
"Unknown but Not Forgotten. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1220129629~2

---

Sources:

1. McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988, p. 312

2. Ibid. p. 313

3. Oldt, Franklin T. History of Dubuque County, Iowa. Online: http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-29-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-30-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

9. "Tattered Dubuquers Paid the Full Price," Telegraph Herald, Oct. 16, 1859, p. 29. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=fItFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0LwMAAAAIBAJ&pg=3801,5157564&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

10. Ibid.

11. Johnson, Russell Lee. Warriors Into Workers: The Civil War and the Formation of Urban-industrial Society in a Northern City. Fordham University Press, 2003. p. 61 Online: http://books.google.com/books?id=ahqtg54TXyEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

12. Gallagher, Mary Kevin. Seed/Harvest: A History of the Archdiocese of Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa, Archdiocese of Dubuque Press, 1987, p. 19

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid., p. 20

15. Ibid., p. 21

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. "Uniforms of the Iowa Troops," The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, January 1918, Dubuque County, IAGenWeb, Online: http://iagenweb.org/dubuque/military/uniforms_CW.htm

19. Ibid.

20. Porter, Melvin. "Body Armor Vest in the American Civil War," Hub Pages, Online: http://melpor.hubpages.com/hub/Bulletproof-Vests-Were-Used-During-The-American-Civil-War

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. Johnson, Russell Lee. p. 62

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid.

28. McPherson, p. 313

29. Johnson, Russell Lee. p. 62 Online: http://books.google.com/books?id=ahqtg54TXyEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

30. "Iowa Soldiers in the Civil War," The Des Moines Register, Feb. 20, 1933

31. "Battle of Wilson's Creek." Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wilson%27s_Creek

32. "Iowa Soldiers in the Civil War."

33. McPherson, p. 326

34. Ibid., p. 327

35. "Awakening to Battle...," Iowa Heritage Illustrated, Spring 2014, p. 16

36. Fact and Grave. "Francis J. Herron," Online: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?GRid=4842&page=gr

37. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copperhead_(politics)‎

38. History, Art and Archives of the United States House of Representatives, "George Wallace Jones," Online: http://history.house.gov/People/Listing/J/JONES,-George-Wallace-%28J000221%29/#biography

39. Wildman, David. Iowa's Martyr Regiment. Iowa City, Iowa: Camp Pope Publishing, 2010, p. 20

40. Kruse, Len. My Old Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa: Center for Dubuque History, 2000.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid.

44. "Dubuque Observes 50th Anniversary," Telegraph Herald, Apr. 23, 1911, p. 25. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=5_BCAAAAIBAJ&sjid=76sMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4979,1216434&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

45. Renner, Beverly. "When 'Boys in Blue' Had Rendezvous Camp Here," Telegraph Herald, July 11, 1952, p. 31. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=b3VFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ubwMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5649,1872181&dq=camp+union+dubuque&hl=en

46. Wildman, David. p. 16

47. Ibid. p. 37

48. Renner, Beverly.

49. Ibid.

50. "Honor the Colors," County Enlistments in the Civil War by Regiment, State Historical Society of Iowa, Online: http://www.iowahistory.org/museum/battleflags/info/assets/county_enlistments.pdf

51. Johnson, Russell Lee. p. 59 Online: http://books.google.com/books?id=ahqtg54TXyEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

52. Edward DECKERT and Cherba, Connie. "The Union Hero and the Anti-Lincoln Fanatic," Julien's Journal, August 2010, p. 77

53. Moffat, William C. Jr. "Soldiers' Pay in the Civil War," The Cincinnati Civil War Round Table, January 1965. Online: http://www.cincinnaticwrt.org/data/ccwrt_history/talks_text/moffat_soldiers_pay.html

54. "Union Draft-Civil War," Online: www.wtv-zone.com/civilwar/usdraft.html‎

55. Iowa in the Civil War, "37th Iowa Volunteer Infantry," Online: http://iagenweb.org/benton/civil_war/37th/37th-history.htm

56. Edward DECKERT and Cherba, Constance. "Florence Healey: Dubuque's First Shop Girl," Julien's Journal, August 2011, p. 58

57. "Civil War Draft List, Other Records Posted by City Clerk," The Morning Record, Jan. 26, 1967, p. 5. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=0QlIAAAAIBAJ&sjid=UwANAAAAIBAJ&pg=2486,2736953&dq=civil+war+draft&hl=en

58. Johnson, Russell Lee. Warriors into Workers, p. 238

59. "Dubuque During the Civil War," Telegraph Herald, May 29, 1997, p. 5. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=xQZRAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wsAMAAAAIBAJ&pg=6614,6141606&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

60. Johnson, Russell L. "A Debt Justly Due: the Relief of Civil War Soldiers and Their Families in Dubuque," The Annals of Iowa, State Historical Society of Iowa, Vol. 55, Number 3, p. 235 Online: http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=10046&context=annals-of-iowa

61. Ibid.p. 226

62. Ibid.

63. Ibid., p. 231

64. Ibid., p. 233

65. Ibid., p. 237

66. Johnson, Russell L. The Civil War Generation: Military Service and Mobility in Dubuque, Iowa 1860-1870. Online: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Civil+War+generation%3A+military+service+and+mobility+in+Dubuque,...-a055084000

67. Fialka, John J. Sisters: Catholic Nuns and the Making of America. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003, p. 61

68. Fialka, p. 6

69. "Embalming During the Civil War," Online: http://www.pccpc.org/link/embalming.html

70. Kelly, Kate. "Embalming Invented During the Civil War," America Comes Alive, Online: http://americacomesalive.com/2010/08/03/wars-drive-advances/#.VSyOGhcQTsY

71. "Embalming During the Civil War."

72."Decoration of Graves," IAGenWeb. Online: http://iagenweb.org/dubuque/military/May1868.htm

73. Ibid.

74. Cook, Robert. "A War for Principle? Shifting Memories of the Union Cause in Iowa 1865-1916," The Annals of Iowa, Volume 74, Number 3, Summer 2015, p. 226

75. "Decoration of Graves,"

76. Cook, p. 239

77. "Back From Shiloh," Dubuque Sunday Herald, April 4, 1895, p. 2

78. "Dubuque Still Has Twenty Veterans," Dubuque Telegraph Herald and Times Journal, May 30, 1928, p. 4. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=_apFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Gr0MAAAAIBAJ&pg=1474,5835924&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

79. Reber, Craig D. "Dubuque Ceremony Will Honor Confederate Army Soldiers," Telegraph Herald, p. 4A

80. "Dubuquer's Civil War Diary Records Early Fighting," Telegraph Herald, March 12, 1961, Dubuque News, p. 1

81. Ingerson, Ralph. "Find Civil War Guns Here," Telegraph Herald, January 1, 1961, Dubuque News, p. 1

Harris, Diane

Pregler, John.


Recruiting payment receipt. Photo courtesy: Dr. Darryl Mozena
Mustering out payment receipt. Photo courtesy: Dr. Darryl Mozena
Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia. Confederate general's coat.
Soldiers who fought in the Civil War are buried near a monument to their sacrifice.
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Following the Civil War, some individuals formed companies supposedly to help soldiers receive their pensions. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Telegraph Herald, Feb. 16, 1936. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald, April 23, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald, April 23, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
This list is provided by Diane Harris from a genealogy newsletter.
Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia. Insignia worn by (CT) "Colored Troops"
Iowa in the Civil War. Photo courtesy: Iowa National Guard
Surgeon's equipment. Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia.
Medical equipment. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Bucket for water to cool the cannon between firings, sponge on pole to clean/cool cannon barrel, screw to remove debris in barrel, pendulum (upper left) used for sighting cannon. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas.
Associated with the sketch of a cannon: pendulum used for sighting, lanyard attached to the friction primer and pulled to fire the cannon, friction primer inse4ted into the vent and used to fire the cannon, priming wire used to puncture the artillery powder bags, thumb stall used to cover the cannon vent while being loaded. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas.
Case shot. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Solid shot. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Rifled shell (more accuracy). Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Case shot. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia. Confederate cannon manufactured by the Tredegar Company. On the left is a 42-pounder rifled and banded siege cannon. On the left is a Model 1841 6-pounder field cannon and thought to be the first bronze cannon manufactured at this site.


See: AFRICAN AMERICANS

See: DAUGHTERS OF UNION VETERANS OF THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865

See: SONS OF UNION VETERANS OF THE CIVIL WAR