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See the category--Civil War Sketches

CIVIL WAR. The American Civil War was a struggle fought within the United States from 1861 until 1865 with such complex political, economic, psychological and social causes that reasons for the conflict remain a source of disagreement among historians. For an excellent background, read chapters 1-9 of James McPherson's Pulitzer Prize winning book Battle Cry of Freedom.

Express and Herald Jan 12, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Express and Herald Jan 12, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris

The Civil War was a glaring example of the United States getting into a war before it prepared for it. (1) In 1861 most of the 16,000-man army was scattered among seventy-nine frontier posts west of the Mississippi River. One third of its officers were resigning to serve with their friends in the South. All but one of the heads of the eight army bureaus had been in service since the War of 1812. The Union Army had no general staff, no strategic plans, and no program of mobilization. It possessed few accurate maps of the South. When General Henry W, Halleck, commanding the Western Department in early 1862 wanted maps he had to purchase them from a St. Louis bookstore. (2)

A call signed by about one-hundred citizens appeared about the middle of January, 1861, for a meeting of

         all persons who are impressed with 
         the imminent perils of dissolution 
         now threatening the Union and are 
         willing in a spirit of conciliation 
         and compromise to agree to an settlement 
         of the questions which now unhappily 
         distract the country, upon the basis of 
         the Crittenden Compromise propositions. (3)

This meeting was held at the court house, and Warner LEWIS was named chairperson and William W. Mills declared secretary. A committee of five was appointed to draft resolutions — T. M. Monroe, Dr. James C. Lay, Thomas Faherty, James H. Williams and J. H. Emerson. While these men met, the secretary read the Crittenden resolutions and the meeting heard a strong Union appeal by John D. Jennings. The resolutions declared that the people were unalterably attached to the Union; that there was no natural conflict between the two sections; and that the Crittenden Compromise or some other practical proposition should be adopted. After debate, the resolutions were unanimously adopted and forwarded to Congress. (4)

The DUBUQUE HERALD consistently expressed the view that the country was unnecessarily headed for war.

         War has probably been commenced between the North and 
         the South, consequent upon the persistency (sic) of the 
         administration to hold Fort Sumter and to carry into effect 
         the doctrine of the 'irrepressible conflict.' We have but 
         little heart today for comment. In a day or two at farthest 
         we shall probably have the result of the conflict in Charles-
         ton harbor. We anticipate it will be a bloody one — destructive
         of life and property, and the beginning of a revolution which 
         will end in the destruction of the government and of course of 
         the Union. (5)
                                Herald, April 10, 1861 

The Herald argued that while the government had a right to reinforce Fort Sumter, other circumstances overshadowed such a right. A different plan should be taken and remedial measures taken. (6)

          A parental government would have tried remedial 
          measures first before resorting to the exercise 
          of its vengeance; but the government as administered 
          by Mr. Lincoln seems to know of but one course to pursue, 
          and that is to provoke a conflict between the government 
          and its disaffected people, for the purpose of coercing 
          them to obey its own behests and to submit to the infliction
          of intolerable grievances from a fanatical faction which 
          have obtained control of the government. 
                         Herald, April 10, 1861

By 1861, many military companies had been organized in Dubuque: the DUBUQUE CITY GUARDS, Turner Rifle Company, GOVERNOR'S GREYS, JACKSON GUARDS, DUBUQUE LIGHT HORSE GUARDS, UNION GUARDS, DUBUQUE LIGHT ARTILLERY, and the WASHINGTON GUARDS. The number of military groups and their lack of training was a concern for some residents. (See editorial on left)

Dubuque Herald Jan 24, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris

Just two days before the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the Herald carried this editorial: (7)

         What deep lethargy has fallen on the 
         American people? The government is 
         tumbling into ruins. The nation is on 
         the verge of a plunge into civil war. 
         Imbecility of rulers at the federal 
         capital is governed by a military 
         dictator. Hostile fleets and armies 
         are dispatched to begin hostilities 
         upon our brethren of the South, when 
         that act shall become the death knell 
         of the Union. Men of all parties can 
         be found who deprecate the hostile 
         operations of the military dictator at 
         Washington. Let us all who are opposed 
         to the code of coercion meet in one vast 
         body in Dubuque and protest with our 
         loudest voice against civil war and the 
         military terrorism inaugurated at Washington. 
         Our motto should be, 'No fraternal bloodshed 
         — no civil war; but peace and conciliation.
                      Herald, April 11, 1861 

The opposing view during the lead up to and years of civil war was expressed by the DUBUQUE TIMES. On July 12, 1861, an article signed "Patriot" appeared in the Times, from which the following are extracts: (8)

          To the Lazy-Abiding Citizens of Dubuque. — It is 
          well known to you that there is a paper published 
          in our midst that is devoted entirely, both in its
          editorials and selected matter, to the cause of 
          those who are endeavoring to overthrow our government 
          and our liberties. This paper, while it professes to 
          be in favor of the Union and denies being in favor of 
          secession, yet boldly advocates a recognition of the 
          Southern Confederacy and opposes 'forcing a government
          upon people which they do not desire,' thus giving the 
          lie to its professions of Union, a paper which is 
          notoriously in the hands of a few persons of "gentle 
          southern blood,' who boldly sympathize with the South 
          and rejoice over any temporary success she may achieve 
          and who have repeatedly declared their intention of 
          returning to her soil to take arms against our government. 
          It is well known that this paper is exerting quite a wide-
          spread and seditious influence upon its readers and waxing 
          bolder every day.  
          Would it not be well for the patriots of this city to 
          assemble in mass meeting in a quiet and orderly manner 
          to express our indignation and abhorrence of the sentiments 
          of this paper and its supporters, to declare that such are 
          not the sentiments of this community in general, to withdraw 
          our support from it, both in subscription and in advertising, 
          and to counsel as to those means which may be rightly used 
          to rid us of the reproach and injury its existence brings 
          upon us? That this is a duty now devolving upon us is freely 
          admitted by many influential citizens with whom longer patience 
          has ceased to be a virtue."

With the firing upon Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln called for volunteers. At the time, the State of Iowa was only twelve years old; Dubuque was thirty. (9) When the final records were checked at the end of the war, it was found that half of the men of military age had marched to war. The state has never again seen a departure of so many of its young men (as a percent of population) in any war. (4) In the first days of enlistment, so many young men came forward that four companies rather than just two could have been created. (10) The First Iowa Infantry regiment, formed in Dubuque under the leadership of Colonel John F. Bates, was the first Iowa unit established under Lincoln's call for volunteers on ninety-day service. Later regiments were formed of men volunteering typically for three years.

The call-up of volunteers brought tension to Dubuque. Iowa Catholics especially in Dubuque were not generally supporters of the war. (11) Bishop Mathias LORAS owned a slave. Other Catholic bishops while insisting that slave owners treat their slaves in a humane manner seemed to accept the practice as a part of Southern society. Traditionally Democratic, Dubuque Catholics supported Democratic candidates in 1860. Patrick J. QUIGLEY and George Wallace JONES committed themselves to the Democratic candidate, Breckenridge. Dennis MAHONY, an influential lay leader in the church, teacher, state legislator, and newspaper editor chose to support Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas. While Lincoln carried the state in the election of 1860, Dubuque and Lee counties, voted Democratic. (12)

Iowa Catholics also had reservations about the new Republican Party. Formed just before the election of 1860, this political group included anti-Catholics such as the former Know-Nothings. The DUBUQUE OBSERVER came into existence in 1854 with a definite hostility to the Irish and foreign born and a suspicious attitude toward Catholics. A belief at the time was that a Catholic conspiracy existed which was attempting to bring down the Republic and the Constitution. (13)

Given the strong pro-Southern leanings of many of the citizens, Bishop Clement SMYTH took a decidedly different approach. The bishop strongly condemned the activities of the COPPERHEADS and threatened excommunication of any Catholics who joined. He called upon the foreign born not to do anything that would suggest they were disloyal and openly expressed grief at the death of Lincoln at the end of the war. (14)

Volunteers leaving Dubuque.
Two Dubuque companies were the Governor's Greys led by Captain Fredrick Gottschalk and Captain Francis J. HERRON and the Jackson Guard. Only four of the Jackson Guards were native-born Americans. The other members of the company were immigrants from Prussia, Bavaria, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, Luxembourg, and nine German states. The Governor's Greys were primarily native-born Americans with nearly half of the company originally from New York and only five natives of Iowa. There were fifteen foreign-born members of the group.

On April 22, 1861, the companies departed Dubuque for Missouri aboard the ship the Alhambra in a scene illustrated by Alexander SIMPLOT. (15) The Dubuque Herald on April 23, 1861 noted that volunteers were walking as far as twenty-five miles to come to Dubuque to volunteer. Pro-war sermons were preached by ministers of the Baptist and Congregational Churches. Classes at Catholic schools were dismissed, and Bishop Smyth flew the Stars and Stripes. Led by the GERMANIA BAND, the companies marched to the boat at the base of Jones Street.

Dubuque Herald, April 26, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Uniforms for the soldiers, despite valiant efforts of the Ladies Volunteer Labour Society (see the editorial on the left), were not complete and were sent two weeks later. In August 1861 members of the First Iowa returned home in brand new uniforms after their ninety-day service. The new uniforms hid the fact that for most of their duty, the soldiers had been dressed in "tatters...that would excite the profoundest contempt of the seediest beggar." (16)

Food supplies were not much better. Soldiers in the First Iowa during one four-day march covering seventy-eight miles were issued one cup of corn meal mush per day. (15) Soldiers added what food they could find along the way. Perhaps the worse element of the meal was the pork. Correspondent Franc Wilkie claimed "it reposes in superlative nastiness in every barrel. (18)

Dubuque Herald, May 5, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald. Feb. 27, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Supplying weapons for the troops also proved difficult. (See article on the right.) Captain R. G. Herron returned from Springfield, Illinois on May 4, 1861. He had been sent by Governor Kirkwood to requisition 5,000 "stands" of arms. Herron found nothing but old flintlocks which had been refitted into percussion arms. There were bayonets but no scabbards. He refused all of the equipment. Most of the arms in government arsenals (including the 159,000 muskets seized by Confederate states) were smooth bore, many of them antique flintlocks. (19) War correspondent, Franc WILKIE claimed the guns posed a bigger threat to "friend than enemy." (20)

On August 10, 1861, Dubuque troops fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in southwestern Missouri near Springfield. The First Iowa Regiment was in the center of battle and took heavy loses. The Union Army lost 1,235 men and the Southern army lost 3,000. (21) The bloody battle, which lasted only one morning, led to the death of 30 percent of the Jackson Guards and 23 percent of the Governors' Greys whose gray uniforms unfortunately led many to be mistaken for Confederates. (22) The battered troops marched home to be mustered out. Many enlisted again in new companies and became officers. The First Regiment was never reorganized. (23) Instead of recruiting old regiments up to strength, states preferred to organize new ones with new opportunities for patronage in the form of officers' commissions and pride in the number of regiments sent by the state. (24)

Professional soldiers detested the practice of electing officers in volunteer regiments and appointing generals through politics. On July 22, the day after the Union defeat at Bull Run, the Union Congress authorized the creation of military boards to examine officers and remove those unqualified. Hundreds were quickly discharged or resigned voluntarily rather than face the examiners. (25)

Dubuque residents along with Americans throughout the country soon became aware of the terrible nature of war. Correspondents like Wilkie reported the tragedy:

                   Some the wounds were horrible; some had the
                   lower jaw shot away, others had arms torn
                   off, others came in with legs dangling over
                   the sides of the wagon, all thirsty, and
                   calling almost incessantly for water.  A
                   flag of truce went out soon after to bring
                   in the wounded and bury the dead, and up to
                   a late hour the work went on. (26)
Envelopes were commonly used to support the unity of the nation.
1862 patriotic envelope.
Express and Herald Jan 12, 1861. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris

Eleven days after the battle, one-fourth of the Jackson Guards and half of the Governors' Greys re-enlisted. In 1862 Captain Herron became the youngest major general on either side at the time of his appointment. (27)

Dennis MAHONY, editor of the Dubuque Herald, wrote to Governor Kirkwood and offered to recruit and lead an Irish regiment. His offer was not accepted. Other efforts by Democrats to join in the war effort were also rejected, an action that has led some historians to suspect the Republican Party of attempts to gain a partisan victory from the war with political and economic benefits. The conflict over the Civil War was carried out locally through the NEWSPAPERS. The editor of the Dubuque Times, a staunchly Republican publication, even suggested that if Democrats really wanted to cooperate in the war effort they would join the Republican Party.

Most Northern Democrats did support the war effort, earning the title "War Democrats." Other Democrats came to oppose the war and earned for themselves the term "Peace Democrats" or more commonly "Copperheads." (28) Dubuque also had its southern sympathizers. Senator George W. Jones and former Governor Stephen HEMPSTEAD had sons in the Confederate army. Jones, a life-long friend of Confederate President Jefferson DAVIS and United States ambassador to Columbia, was arrested upon his return to the United States in part because of indiscreet letters he had written Davis prior to the Civil War. Jones, his political fortunes ended, raised an uproar by going south to visit Davis after the war and returned in 1899 to attend the funeral of his friend. (29)

Anti-Catholic and anti-foreign attitudes expressed by those who were also anti-slavery angered many Dubuque residents. Republican leaders including President Abraham Lincoln believed that many influential Dubuque citizens were pro-slavery. Dubuque was rumored to be a headquarters of the KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE. There was widespread suppression of the press, along with arrests, censorship, and suspension of habeas corpus. It has been said Jones was jailed as much as a warning to powerful Dubuque residents as for his letters to Davis.

Nearly every company of stopped in front of the offices of the "Dubuque Times" to give three cheers for the newspaper's support of the war. (30) Dubuque's principal newspapers bitterly attacked each other's point of view. Accusations made by the Dubuque Times against the Dubuque Herald led Dennis Mahony to charge the paper with libel. The Herald further incited the Times by printing editorials that urged peace and condemned the Lincoln Administration. A riot caused by rumors of a plot to destroy the Herald office was prevented by law enforcement officials and the efforts of MAYOR Henry L. STOUT.

Mahony, a bitter opponent to the war, was arrested on August 13, 1862, at his home and jailed in the Washington, D.C. prison without habeas corpus until after the elections in November 1862. (31)

Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque was selected in July 1862, as a rendezvous for regiments raised by a new call from the War Department. Recruiting offices flew flags from nearly every block in the city. Since Dubuque had such an anti-Lincoln reputation, the idea of it being the headquarters for a training center called CAMP UNION made little sense. It was renamed Camp Franklin. (32)
Dubuque-Herald, January 16, 1863. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
The barracks for the volunteers were constructed 60 feet by 20 feet to house one hundred men. More than six hundred were quartered two weeks after the camp was built. Soldiers were advised to take their own blankets or quilts because the camp had none. (33) Apparently this advise was not followed because "Captains Welsh and Rogers went door to door in Dubuque asking for blankets" with the promise that they would be returned when they were no longer needed. (34) By 1863, Camp Franklin housed 2,000 soldiers with another 1,500 living in private homes and hotels in the city. (35) The same year, Camp Franklin was discontinued. (36)
Dubuque-Herald, January 11, 1863. Image courtesy: Diane Harris

The search for more soldiers led to the movement to form an Irish regiment in Dubuque. Service for one year would grant citizenship to foreigners. Those who joined were attached to General Corcoran's Irish Brigade. A special Christmas dinner for the volunteers and others stationed by Camp Franklin came from local ladies who sent pies, cakes and supplies of turkeys to the soldiers.

Dubuque-Herald, Aug. 5, 1862. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque became recognized as one of the Union's best recruiting centers. (37) The city filled its city enlistment quotas throughout the war without resorting to conscription. (38) Lieutenant Dewey, one of the most successful recruiters, enlisted five hundred men in one year. Joseph B. Dorr earlier in the war helped recruit a regiment after he had escaped from a Confederate prison. (39)

When the government issued a call for more troops, each state was given a quota to fill based on its population. The number of volunteers would be subtracted from the quota and the difference would be drafted. If a draftee, volunteered before the final muster, he avoided the stigma of compulsory service and was eligible to collect a bounty of $100 from the federal government plus additional bounties from the state and local communities. In total, the bounties could exceed $500, which was about the average yearly wage in those days. States considered it a matter of pride to fill their quotas without having to resort to the draft.

The Dubuque Herald had another view of the draft: (40)

      The fairest way to raise troops is 
      by drafting. There are at least a 
      hundred partisan leaders who are 
      urging every Democrat they meet to 
      go to war, but not one of whom 
      volunteers himself to go. It is 
      amusing to see our Stouts, 
      Langworthys, Allisons, Adamses and 
      other leading Republicans running to 
      and fro urging their poorer neighbors 
      to go to war. If they will not, let 
      them take their chances at the time 
      of drafting." 
             Herald, July 30, 1862 

A draftee could gain an exemption by paying a fee of $300 or by hiring a substitute. Negotiating for substitutes was a perfectly honorable deal. Fees for same were governed largely by the availability of men willing to go as a substitute. A substitute usually got as much as a commutation fee of $300.00. Thus, a substitute could receive his fee of $300.00 plus volunteer bonus of $100.00, totaling $400.00--a fair sum, about equal to a year's average rural income. (41) The bounty system also made possible the enrichment of a large number of unscrupulous persons called "bounty jumpers." These men would enlist to collect their bounty, then desert and enlist somewhere else and collect another bounty. (42)

Iowa was the only state to organize a group of older men for service; this was the GRAYBEARD REGIMENT which included several Dubuque residents. (43)

Soldiers from Dubuque were also active in the final campaigns of the war. They saw action along the Rio Grande, in Mississippi, Georgia and Tennessee. At the same time, recruitment became more difficult. Obtaining substitutes to avoid conscription became more common with offers ranging from $200 to $400. (44) A brokers' association formed in Dubuque furnished substitutes. Members each paid $250 to have a substitute for one year. If the member was not drafted his fee remained in the association. In 1864 a special tax was levied by the Board of Supervisors to relieve Dubuque County of the draft. A total of $125,000 was appropriated to secure volunteers who would enlist giving credit to Dubuque County. Scores of men flooded to Dubuque although each was to be paid no more than $400. The total amount paid out reached $115,800.

Sacrifice on the battlefield was matched by determined assistance from those left at home. Under the leadership of Mrs. James Langworthy, Mrs. Henry L. Stout, and Mrs. J. W. Taylor, the Ladies' Volunteer Labour Society in Dubuque made uniforms for the Jackson Guards and the Governor's Greys in 1861. In eight days, 248 women sewed all the uniforms for the Governor's Greys and the Jackson Guards. (45) Boxes of clothing and food were sent to soldiers in the field throughout the war. The Society met in the basement of the Baptist Church. Annual membership dues were twenty-five cents. Donations of knitting, sewing, money, and food were accepted. Christmas dinner was provided every soldier's family in Dubuque in 1863.

Image courtesy: Diane Harris.
Fund-raising was an important activity of the Society. By 1864 an estimated sixty-two families were entirely dependent on the Society for support. In addition to the dues, the Society served breakfast and refreshments at the Iowa State Agricultural Fair in 1864. This activity, in addition to providing an evening benefit entertainment, earned the Society $1000. Collections were also taken in church. Local festivals and balls earned hundreds of dollars.

Other community efforts to help in the war effort included the Christian Commission Society. Organized on November 21, 1864, the agency met the needs of the church in distributing food and spiritual needs to military personnel. Representatives were sent to every army with supplies and Bibles. In 1863 efforts were started to establish a Soldiers' Home in Dubuque. Since it helped soldiers from counties outside of Dubuque, financial assistance was sent from boards of supervisors in Blackhawk, Bremer, Butler, Chickasaw, Delaware, Floyd, Jones and Mitchell counties. Over one thousand soldiers were aided within one year.

Direct benefit to the troops also came from the NORTHERN IOWA SANITARY FAIR and LINT SOCIETIES.

Public sponsored relief for soldiers and relief for their families after the war raised serious questions. Many considered relief to a soldier as something earned and therefore respectable. There was a definite thought, however, that relief to a soldier's family only encouraged poor habits and was a financial drain on the community. (46) By 1864, sixty-two families of soldiers were entirely dependent on the Ladies Volunteer Aid Society for their survival. (47)

Sept. 28, 1866. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
News of the occupation of Charleston by Union troops and the surrender of General Robert E. Lee were causes of joyous celebration. Flags were displayed on February 22, 1865, to celebrate the Charleston victory, and Captain Oliver Perry SHIRAS ordered a salute fired with one hundred guns in WASHINGTON PARK.

News of Lee's surrender reached Dubuque on April 8, 1865. Church bells pealed the glorious news. The bell on the FIRST CONGREGATIONAL UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST rang so long it cracked. (48) Flags were displayed everywhere. Those excessively patriotic dressed themselves in national colors and paraded through the streets.

Few knew what to expect from the returning veterans. "Great God!" the Iowa Religious Newsletter, a newspaper founded in the city during the war by a group of pro-war ministers, had quoted an army chaplain saying in July 1862.

        I tremble at the result of this war, 
        lest tens of thousands of the valiant 
        defenders of our country be turned 
        into men of vile speech and ruined 
        character and then turned loose to 
        curse the country their arms have 
        rescued. (49)

The anti-war "Dubuque Herald" and the pro-war "Dubuque Times", each expressed similar concerns. Dennis Mahony, regularly worried in print about the creation of a "subservient army" of "rapine and plunder" to do Lincoln's bidding and tied it to a more general loss of the "sturdy manliness which [once] characterized the citizen of the United States." The "Times" offered this advice to the soldiers: "We would earnestly say to all of our noble hearted volunteers ... [you] may come home maimed for life in body and limb, but do not return with crippled character, and poisoned faculties." (50)

A hauntingly beautiful picture in the Civil War section of Linwood Cemetery. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald. A very typical obituary during the war. Image courtesy: Diane Harris

The Civil War led to the deaths of 3,540 in combat; 8,498 of disease; 515 in prisoner-of-war camps; 227 in accidents; and 221 from nonmilitary causes. There were 8,500 reported wounded. In 1893 Dubuque's monument to her Civil War dead was erected in LINWOOD CEMETERY after twelve years of collecting funds.

In 1895 survivors of the Battle of Shiloh returned to the site to help the national commission locate where different regiments fought. The passage of thirty years made the task nearly impossible. Boards were placed at different locations on the battlefield to allow former commanders to indicate where their soldiers had been at different times of the day. The results often showed confusion. The commission began its survey of the battlefield on April 4, 1895 and was expected to complete its work in six months when the site became a national park. (51)

In 1928 Dubuque still counted twenty citizens who were veterans of the Civil War. (52) Many visited Linwood Cemetery on Decoration Day. Later called Memorial Day after the nation had been involved in other wars, the day was originally set aside by the Grand Army of the Republic to pay respects for those who had died in this battle or afterwards. (53)

An account of Dubuque's role in the Civil War often leaves the actions of a Dennis Mahony or the role of the Copperheads as the sole representatives of the anti-war or anti-Northern response. The City of Dubuque contributed four sons of the most prominent local figures to the defense of the Confederate States of America. These were Junius Lackland HEMPSTEAD, the son of Iowa's first governor; George Jones and Charles Scott Dodge JONES, the sons of George Wallace JONES, and lastly; Daniel O'Connell QUIGLEY, one son of Dubuque's first Justice of the Peace, a founding father, trustee, and a treasurer of the city.

On October 4, 2014 a ceremony at MOUNT OLIVET CEMETERY was held honoring the military service of the Jones brothers. Participating in the program were several Sons of Confederate Veterans, an organization dedicated to preserving a factual history of the Southern soldier and sailor. The Iowa division of the organization had researched and documented more than 225 Confederate veterans buried in Iowa. (54)

James Brunskill monument. James Brunskill served in Company C of the Iowa 21st Infantry Regiment from 1862-65. This memorial is about 12 feet high in the Center Grove Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1216933816
George Washington Healey Monument. Corporal Healey (1842-1913) of the 5th Iowa Cavalry earned the Medal of Honor for capturing Confederate prisoners at Newnan, Georgia on July 29, 1864. Earlier he had been wounded in the head and lost the sight in his left eye. Later he was captured and sent to Andersonville Prison. After the war he operated a hardware store in Dubuque. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1235693336
Soldier monument and two mortars. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1211403338
David Bremmer Henderson. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1256601063
"Unknown but Not Forgotten. This monument is in Linwood Cemetery. Photo: Iowa Civil War Monuments. Online: http://www.iowacivilwarmonuments.com/cgi-bin/gaarddetails.pl?1220129629~2



1. McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988, p. 312

2. Ibid. p. 313

3. Oldt, Franklin T. History of Dubuque County, Iowa. Online: http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-29-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/franklin-t-oldt/history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl/page-30-history-of-dubuque-county-iowa-being-a-general-survey-of-dubuque-county-histor-tdl.shtml

9. "Tattered Dubuquers Paid the Full Price," Telegraph Herald, Oct. 16, 1859, p. 29. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=fItFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0LwMAAAAIBAJ&pg=3801,5157564&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

10. Ibid.

11. Johnson, Russell Lee. Warriors Into Workers: The Civil War and the Formation of Urban-industrial Society in a Northern City. Fordham University Press, 2003. p. 61 Online: http://books.google.com/books?id=ahqtg54TXyEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

12. Gallagher, Mary Kevin. Seed/Harvest: A History of the Archdiocese of Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa, Archdiocese of Dubuque Press, 1987, p. 19

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid., p. 20

15. Ibid., p. 21

16. Ibid.

17. Johnson, Russell Lee. p. 62

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. McPherson, p. 313

21. Johnson, Russell Lee. p. 62 Online: http://books.google.com/books?id=ahqtg54TXyEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

22. "Iowa Soldiers in the Civil War," The Des Moines Register, Feb. 20, 1933

23. "Battle of Wilson's Creek." Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wilson%27s_Creek

24. "Iowa Soldiers in the Civil War."

25. McPherson, p. 326

26. Ibid., p. 327

27. "Awakening to Battle...," Iowa Heritage Illustrated, Spring 2014, p. 16

28. Fact and Grave. "Francis J. Herron," Online: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?GRid=4842&page=gr

29. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copperhead_(politics)‎

30. History, Art and Archives of the United States House of Representatives, "George Wallace Jones," Online: http://history.house.gov/People/Listing/J/JONES,-George-Wallace-%28J000221%29/#biography

31. Wildman, David. Iowa's Martyr Regiment. Iowa City, Iowa: Camp Pope Publishing, 2010, p. 20

32. "Dubuque Observes 50th Anniversary," Telegraph Herald, Apr. 23, 1911, p. 25. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=5_BCAAAAIBAJ&sjid=76sMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4979,1216434&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

33. Renner, Beverly. "When 'Boys in Blue' Had Rendezvous Camp Here," Telegraph Herald, July 11, 1952, p. 31. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=b3VFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ubwMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5649,1872181&dq=camp+union+dubuque&hl=en

34. Wildman, David. p. 16

35. Wildman, David. p. 37

36. Renner, Beverly.

37. Ibid.

38. "Honor the Colors," County Enlistments in the Civil War by Regiment, State Historical Society of Iowa, Online: http://www.iowahistory.org/museum/battleflags/info/assets/county_enlistments.pdf

39. Johnson, Russell Lee. p. 59 Online: http://books.google.com/books?id=ahqtg54TXyEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

40. Edward DECKERT and Cherba, Connie. "The Union Hero and the Anti-Lincoln Fanatic," Julien's Journal, August 2010, p. 77

41. Moffat, William C. Jr. "Soldiers' Pay in the Civil War," The Cincinnati Civil War Round Table, January 1965. Online: http://www.cincinnaticwrt.org/data/ccwrt_history/talks_text/moffat_soldiers_pay.html

42. "Union Draft-Civil War," Online: www.wtv-zone.com/civilwar/usdraft.html‎

43. Iowa in the Civil War, "37th Iowa Volunteer Infantry," Online: http://iagenweb.org/benton/civil_war/37th/37th-history.htm

44. Edward DECKERT and Cherba, Constance. "Florence Healey: Dubuque's First Shop Girl," Julien's Journal, August 2011, p. 58

45. "Civil War Draft List, Other Records Posted by City Clerk," The Morning Record, Jan. 26, 1967, p. 5. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=0QlIAAAAIBAJ&sjid=UwANAAAAIBAJ&pg=2486,2736953&dq=civil+war+draft&hl=en

46. "Dubuque During the Civil War," Telegraph Herald, May 29, 1997, p. 5. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=xQZRAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wsAMAAAAIBAJ&pg=6614,6141606&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

47. Deckert, "Florence Healey," p. 58

48. Nevans-Pederson, Mary. "160 Years Strong," Telegraph Herald, May 8, 1999, p. 14. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=cp1dAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1FwNAAAAIBAJ&pg=5773,1570096&dq=first+congregational+church+dubuque&hl=en

49. Johnson, Russell L. The Civil War Generation: Military Service and Mobility in Dubuque, Iowa 1860-1870. Online: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Civil+War+generation%3A+military+service+and+mobility+in+Dubuque,...-a055084000

50. Ibid.

51. "Back From Shiloh," Dubuque Sunday Herald, April 4, 1895, p. 2

52. "Dubuque Still Has Twenty Veterans," Dubuque Telegraph Herald and Times Journal, May 30, 1928, p. 4. Online: http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=_apFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Gr0MAAAAIBAJ&pg=1474,5835924&dq=civil+war+dubuque&hl=en

53. Ibid.

54. Reber, Craig D. "Dubuque Ceremony Will Honor Confederate Army Soldiers," Telegraph Herald, p. 4A

Harris, Diane

Pregler, John.

Recruiting payment receipt. Photo courtesy: Dr. Darryl Mozena
Mustering out payment receipt. Photo courtesy: Dr. Darryl Mozena
Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia. Confederate general's coat.
Soldiers who fought in the Civil War are buried near a monument to their sacrifice.
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Civil War letter from Camp Franklin. Courtesy: John Pregler
Following the Civil War, some individuals formed companies supposedly to help soldiers receive their pensions. Photo courtesy: Diane Harris
Telegraph Herald, Feb. 16, 1936. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald, April 23, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
Dubuque Herald, April 23, 1861. Image courtesy: Diane Harris
This list is provided by Diane Harris from a genealogy newsletter.
Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia. Insignia worn by (CT) "Colored Troops"
Iowa in the Civil War. Photo courtesy: Iowa National Guard
Surgeon's equipment. Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia.
Medical equipment. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Bucket for water to cool the cannon between firings, sponge on pole to clean/cool cannon barrel, screw to remove debris in barrel, pendulum (upper left) used for sighting cannon. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas.
Associated with the sketch of a cannon: pendulum used for sighting, lanyard attached to the friction primer and pulled to fire the cannon, friction primer inse4ted into the vent and used to fire the cannon, priming wire used to puncture the artillery powder bags, thumb stall used to cover the cannon vent while being loaded. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas.
Case shot. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Solid shot. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Rifled shell (more accuracy). Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Case shot. Photo courtesy: Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas
Photo courtesy: Tredegar Museum, Richmond, Virginia. Confederate cannon manufactured by the Tredegar Company. On the left is a 42-pounder rifled and banded siege cannon. On the left is a Model 1841 6-pounder field cannon and thought to be the first bronze cannon manufactured at this site.